PREPOSITIONS & ARTICLES

(Giới từ, Mạo từ )


I.1 Gii t chỉ thi gian, nơi chốn:

1. AT:

·    For time (ch thi gian)

-    at 4 o’clock, at 1 a.m                 -   at night

-    at Christmas, at Easter              -   at once   (ngay lp tc)

-    at last                                       -   at the moment

-    at present                                 -   at weekens

·    For place (chỉ nơi chốn)

-     at home                                   -   at the theatre

-     at the seaside                           -   at the grocer’s, at the hairdressr’s

-     at school                                 -   at the corner of the street

-     at the top                                 -   at the bottom

-     at the foot of the page               -   at the beginning, at the end

-     at the shop                               - at the airport, railway station,...

2. IN:

·    for time:

-    Năm:   in 1980, in 1870, in 2000

-    Tháng: in June, in May, in August

-    Mùa: in spring, in summer, in winter

-    Bui: in the evening, in the morning (ngoạtr at night)

-    IN TIME đúng giờ

·    For place

-    In   (ở trong): in the dinning room, in the box, in the desk

-    In  được  dùng  trước  các  thành  phố,  đất  nước,  miền,  phương  hướng:.  in

London, in Paris, in Hanoi

-    In the east, in the north,...

-    in the street                              -   in my opinion

-    in good weather                        -   in   (the) newspaper

-    in the   (a)middle of   (the room)   -   in English, GermaN

3. ON

For time

On được dùng trước các ngày trong tuần: on Sunday, on Monday...

-          On được dùng trước ngày, tháng: My birthday   is on June 10th

-          ON TIME đúng giờ   (chính xác): The film was shown on time.

·         For place

-         On   (ở trên): There is a book on the table

-         on horse                                  -   on foot

-         on TV                                      -   on radio

-         on the beach

4. BY

-         By   (bi) được dùng trong câu bị động chỉ người gây ra hành động trong

câu: The letter was written by Mary

-          By  (bằng)  được  dùng  ch  phương tiện đi lại:  I  often  go  to  school  by


-          By (trướlúc, vào lúc) được dùng để chỉ một thời điểm: I have to finish

this report by Thursday.

-         by the time                                           -   by chance

-         learn by heart

5. TO

- To  thường  được  dùng  sau động từ  GO  (go  to  đi  đến):  I’m  going  to  the cinema now.

GO HOME (không dùng to)

- To  thường  được  dùng  để  ch  s  di  chuyn        (ti):My  father  used  to  take me to the circus when I lived in London


      Into co nghĩa   vào trong, được dùng sau các động t GO, PUT, GET,

FALL, JUMP, COME...           I’m going into the dining room.-

7. OUT OF: (ra khỏi) He came out of the house

8. WITH:

có, mang, cùng = having, carrying: A coat with two pockets

-     được dùng để chỉ một công cụ, phương tiện: I often write with a pen.

      được dùng để chỉ sự liên hệ hoặc đồng hành: I’m living with my parents

      With (với): Do you agree with me?


-     Under ( dưới) chỉ vị trí phía dưới một vt:   The cat was under the table

-     Under    (ít  hơn,  thấp  hơn):  The  incomes  under  2000$  a  year  made  him


-     Under được dùng để chỉ sự việc đang trong tình trạng nào đó:   The road

is under repair.

I.2 Gii t theo sau tính t:

1. OF:

-     ashamed of:          xấu hổ v...                   -    afraid of:      s, e ngi

-     ahead of:               trước                 -    aware of:      nhn thức

-     capable of:             kh năng        -   confident of:  tin tưởng

-     doubtful of:           nghi ngờ             -   fond of:         thích

-     full of:                  đầy                     -   hopeful of:    hy vọng

-     independent of:     đc lp                -   proud of:       tự hào

-     jealous of:             ghen tỵ với         -   guilty of:       phm tội

-     sick of:                  chán nn về        -   joyful of:       vui mừng

-     quick of:               nhanh chóng v

-     acceptable to:  thể chp nhn

-     agreeable to:    thể đồng ý     -   addicted to:         đam 

-     delightful to:   thú vị đv ai         -   familiar to:            quen thuc

-     clear to:            ràng                            -   contrary to:       trái li

-     equal to:          tương đương với

-     grateful to:       biết ơn ai              -   harmful to:          hcho ai

-     important to:   quan trng               -   likely to:          th

-                  lucky to:   may mn                     next to:         kế bên

-     open to:           mở                                        -   pleasant to: hài long

-     preferable to:  đáng thích hơn       -   profitable to:    lợi

-               rude to:   thô l                     -   similar to:        ging

-     useful to:           ích cho ai           -   necessary to:     cn thiết cho

-     favourable to:  tán thành                -  accustomed to:           quen vi

3. FOR:

-         available for:          sẵn (cái gì)                                    -  late for:           tr

-         difficult for:            khó…               -  famous for:              nổtiếng

-         dangerous for:      nguy hiểm       -  necessary for:         cn thiết

-         greedy for:            tham lam…      -  suitable for:             thích hp

-         sorry for:               xin li              -  qualified for:             phm chất

-         helpful for:              lợi,  ích  -  useful for:                 lợi,  ích

-         good for:               tốt cho             -  grateful for:              biết ơn về việc

-         convenient for:     thuận lợi cho  -  ready for:                 sẵn sàng cho

-         responsible for:    chu trách nhim

4. AT:

-         good at:                gii   (v)         -  bad at:                     dở (v)

          -                            clever at:         khéo léo                      -  skillful at:       khéo léo

-         quick at:                nhanh…          -  amazed at:               vui v

-         excellent at:          xuất sắvề     -  present at:               hiện din

-         surprised at:         ngnhiên     -  angry at: sth            giận về điều 

-         clumsy at:             vng về           -  annoy at: sth           khó chu

5. WITH:

-         delighted with:     vui mừng với  -  acquainted with::    làm quen

-         crowed with:         đông đúc        -  angry with:              giận d

-         friendly with:        thân mt          -  bored with:              chán…

-         fed up with:          chán…            -  busy with:               bận rộn

-         familiar with:         quen thuc…  -  furious with:            phn nộ

-         pleased with:        hài lòng…       -  popular with:           phổ biến

-         satisfied with:       thỏa mãn…     -  contrasted with::     tương phản với


-          confused about:    br(v)     -  excited about:   hào hứng

-         happy about:        hnh phúc      -  sad about:     bun…

-         serious about:      nghiêm túc     -  upset about:    tht vọng

-         worried about:      lo lng             -  anxious about:   lo lng

-         disappointed about: tht vọng v

7. IN:

    interested in:         thích, quan tâm   -    rich in:                    giàu   (v)

    successful in:        thành công        -   confident in:            tin cy vào ai

8. FROM:

-    isolated from:          bị  lp          -   absent from:              vng mt

-    different from:        khác                -   far from:                   xa

-    safe from:             an tòan              -   divorced from:           ly d

9. ON:

-     keen on:                 hăng hái về

-   based on: phụ thuộc vào


II. Articles (Mạo từ)

* Mạo từ không xác định: a/ an

- a (một): đứng trước danh từ đếm được bắt đầu bằng phụ âm               Ex: a book, a house, a bike, …

- an (một): đứng trước danh từ đếm được bắt đầu bằng nguyên âm (a, e, i, o, u) và “h” câm

Ex: an apple, an orange, an umbrella                 Nhưng a university, an hour

* Mạo từ xác định: The

- Trước danh từ xác định số ít hoặc số nhiều

- Trước danh từ chỉ vật duy nhất: the earth, the sun, the moon, the sky, the world, …

- Trước tính từ, trạng từ trong so sánh nhất: the first, the second, …

- Trước tên người số nhiều để chỉ toàn thể gia đình: the Taylors, the Smiths, ..

- The +danh từ đếm được số ít: chỉ một loài vật, phát minh khoa học, nhạc cụ

- The + adj: chỉ một nhóm người trong xã hội: the young, the old, the poor,…

- The + quốc tịch: chỉ toàn dân tộc: the French, the Chineses,…

- The thường dùng trước những từ có of theo sau: the university of London, the Gulf of Mexico, ..

- The raido, the cinema, the theater

* Các trường hợp không dùng THE

- Trước danh từ số nhiều và danh từ không đếm được với nghĩa chung chung.

Ex: Sugar is sweet.

      The sugar in that jar was bought this morning.

- Trước các danh từ trừu tượng: happiness, freedom, …Dùng the khi các danh từ này có nghĩa riêng biệt.

- Trước các môn thể thao: football, tennis, basketball, baseball

- Trước danh từ chỉ bữa ăn trong ngày: breakfast, lunch, dinner

* THE không được dùng trước tên của:

- Châu lục: Africa, Asia, Europe,…

- Quốc gia: Japan, England, ..

- Tiểu bang: Texas, Florida, ..

- Thành phố, thị trấn: Cairo, New York

- Đảo, hồ, núi, đồi, đường phố, công viên, quảng trường, nhà ga, phi trường, các hành tinh, công ty

Nhưng: the United States, the United Kingdom, the Philippines, the Netherlands


EXERCISE 2: choose the best answer

1. She is fed up …………. washing the dishes every day.

A. at                         B. in                              C. with                          D. on

2. Many Vietnamese people are fond …………. watching football

A. at                         B. for                             C. of                              D. on

 3. The sun's rays can be harmful …………  our skin.

         A. with                    B. of               C.  to                         D. for

4. He works ……….. a pilot

A. by                     B. at                            C. as                       D. in

5. I’ve lost my key . Can you help me to look ………….it ?

 A. for              B. with             C. of             D. about

6. Everyone was surprised ……….. the result …………. the exam .

A. at / of              B. for  / for                 C. on / about D. in /of

 7. It isn’t easy to start looking ………. a job at her age .

A. with                  B. in                            C. for              D. of

 8. The  differences ………..British-English and American-English are small.

A. from                          B. for                           C. about                         D. in

9. His son is very afraid …………. darkness.

A. with                               B. in                         C. of                          D. for

10. She spent all her money ………… clothes

A. on                    B. for                          C. about                      D. in





1.  My mother goes to church in ______ morning.

  A. x            B. every      C. the       D. a

2.  I eat ______ everyday.

  A. a banana                     B. banana  C. the bananas    D. any banana

3.  Harry is a sailor. He spends most of his life at _____ sea.

  A. a            B. an           C. the       D. x

4.  There are billions of stars in _____ space.

  A. a            B. an           C. x           D. the

5.  He tried to park his car but _____ space wasn’t big enough.

  A. the        B. a              C. an        D. x

6.  Can you turn off _____  television, please?

  A. the        B. a              C. an        D. x

7.  We had _____ dinner in a restaurant.

  A. a            B. an           C. x           D. the

8.  We had _____ meal in a restaurant.

  A. a            B. an           C. the       D. x

9.  Thank you. That was ______ very nice lunch.

  A. a            B. an           C. the       D.x

10.  ______rose is my favourite color.

  A. a            B. an           C. the       D. x

11.  When was _____ computer invented?

  A. a            B. an           C. the       D. x

12.  My daughter plays _____ piano very well.

  A. the        B. a              C. an        D. x

13.  Mary loves _____ flowers.

  A. a            B. an           C. the       D. x

14.  Jill went to ______ hospital to see her friend.

  A. x            B. the          C. a           D. an

15.  Mrs Lan went to ______ school to meet her son’s daughter.

  A. x            B. the          C. a           D. an


16.  Carol went to ______ prison to meet her brother.

  A. the        B. a              C. an        D. x

17.  Sandra works at a big hospital. She’s _______.

  A. nurse    B. a nurse  C. the nurse                              D. an nurse

18.  She works six days _____ week.

  A. in              B. for        C. a              D. x

19.  ______ is a star.

  A. Sun         B. A sun     C. The sun                             D. Suns






Công thức :  S + may/ might/ should/can/could …+V1 +O

                      S + Mayn’t/ mightn’t/shouldn’t/ needn’t / can’t + V1 + O

1.    may / might:

a.diễn tả điều có thể xảy ra hoặc không chắc chắn




KĐ: may / might + V1

PĐ: may / might + not + V1



KĐ: may / might have + V3

PĐ: may/might +not + have + V3

Ex: He may / might be in his office. (= perhaps he is in his office)( có lẽ anh ta đang ở cơ quan).

      A: I can’t find my bag anywhere. ( tôi không thể tìm cái túi của tôi ở đâu cả)

      B: You may / might have left it in the shop. (= perhaps you left it in the shop) (có lẽ bạn để  nó ở cửa hang )

b. dùng trong câu yêu cầu lịch sự hoặc xin hay cho phép

Ex: May I use your phone? – Yes, you may. / Sorry, you may not.      

c.    dùng cho lời chúc hay diễn tả niềm hy vọng

Ex: May you be happy. ( chúc bạn hạnh phúc )

Note: Could có thể dùng thay cho may / might

Ex: The phone is ringing. It could be Tim. (= it may / might be Tim)

2. must / mustn’t + V1

a. must + V1 diễn tả:

- sự bắt buộc cần thiết       They must study hard for their next exam.

- lời kết luận cho điều gì đó có dấu hiệu, chứng cứ ở hiện tại   

Eg:  Bill looks so anxious. He must have a problem. ( Bill trông có vẻ quá lo lắng. anh ta chắc hẵn có vấn đề gì rồi )

- sự việc ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai, không dùng ở quá khứ      

       We must go tomorrow (không dùng We must go yesterday)

b. mustn’t + V1: diễn tả sự ngăn cấm

      You must keep it in a secret.    You mustn’t tell anybody else. ( bạn phải giữ nó bí mật, bạn không được nói cho bất kì ai khác)

c. needn’t + V1 = don’t / doesn’t have to + V1: không cần, không phải

needn’t + V1 # must + V1

We have got plenty of time. We needn’t hurry. ( = we don’t need to hurry = we don’t have to hurry) ( chúng ta có nhiều thời gian, chúng ta không cần phải vội )

d. sự khác nhau giữa must và have to

- must: + sự cần thiết hay bắt buộc có tính chủ quan (người nói đưa ra ý tưởng của riêng mình)

             + chỉ dùng để diễn tả sự việc ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai, không diễn tả sự việc ở quá khứ

Ex: I must study for the exam. ( bạn phải học cho kì thi )

      I haven’t phoned Ann for ages. I must phone her tonight.( lâu rồi tôi không gọi cho Ann. Tối nay tôi phải gọi cho cô ấy mới được)

e. have to: + sự cần thiết hay bắt buộc có tính khách quan (người nói chỉ đề cập đến sự kiện)

                 + có thể dùng trong tất cả các dạng

Ex: His eyes are weak. He has to wear glasses. ( mắt của anh ta yếu . anh ta phải đeo kính thôi)

2.    can/ could / should

-          can/ could  + V1 : dung để diễn tả sự có thể/ khả năng 

-          Should + V1 : dung để diễn tả lời khuyên = had better + V1 = ought to + V1


EXERCISE 1: Complete these sentences with must / have to (in the correct form)

1. Jack left before the end of the meeting. He ---------------- go home early.

2. In Britain many children ---------------------- wear uniform when they go to school.

3. When you come to London again, you -------------------- come and see us.              

4. Last night Don became ill suddenly. We ----------------- see a doctor.

5. I’m afraid I can’t come tomorrow. I ----------------- work late.

6. Paul doesn’t like his new job. Sometimes he ---------------------- work at weekends.

7. Caroline may ------------------ go away next week.

8. We couldn’t repair the car ourselves. We -------------------- take it to the garage.

9. You really -------------------- work harder if you want to pass the examination.

10. It’s late than I thought. I ------------------------- go now.


1. must     2. Must    3. Have to   4. Have to  /must  5. Must    6. Must    7/ o   8. Had to/must   9. Have to   10. Must


EXERCISE 2: Choose the best answers

11. I don’t want anyone to know. You ---------------- tell anyone.

     A. must     B. needn’t                                         C. mustn’t                       D. don’t have to

12. He ---------------- wear a suit to work but he usually does.

   A. mustn’t               B. must                                  C. needs                          D. doesn’t have to

13. I can stay in bed tomorrow morning because I ----------------- go to work.

   A. have to               B. need to                              C. must                            D. don’t have to

14. Whatever you do, you ------------------touch that switch. It’s very dangerous.

   A. don’t need to     B. must                                  C. mustn’t                       D. might

15. There’s lift in the building, so we -------------------- climb the stairs.

   A. may                     B. have to                              C. need to                        D. don’t have to

16. We haven’t got much time. We ------------------ hurry.

   A. don’t need to     B. needn’t                             C. must                            D. mustn’t

17. We have enough food at home, so we -------------------- go shopping today.

   A. need to               B. have to                              C. needn’t                       D. must

18. This is a valuable book. You -----------------look after it carefully and you --------------- lose it.

   A. must / need to   B. mustn’t / must                  C. need to / have to       D. must / mustn’t

19.Young people ______ obey their parents.

a. mustc. will                                                      b. may                      d. ought to

20. Laura, you and the kids just have dinner without waiting for me. I ______ work very hard today.

a. can                 c. should                              b. may                       d. would

21.I ______ be delighted to show you round the factory.

a. ought to           c. might                                 b. would        d. can

22.Leave early so that you ______ miss the bus.

a. didn’t               c. shouldn’t                      b. won’t         d. mustn’t

23.Jenny's engagement ring is enormous! It ______ have cost a fortune

a. mustc. will                                                      b. might                    d. should

24.You ______ to write them today.

a. should            c. had                                     b. must                     d.ought

25,I hope I ______ find it.

a. will                   c. could                                 b.shall            d. must

26.Unless he runs he______ catch the train.

a.will       c.wouldn’t                                           b. mustn’t                 d.won’t

27.______ you be in Rome tonight.

a.will             c.might                                         b.may                       d.maybe

28.We ______ have time to help you tomorrow.

a. may                  c. will                                   b.must                      d.could.

29.“______ you hand me that pair of scissors, please?”

a. May                  c. Shall                                b. Will                       d. Should

30.Jeanette did very badly on the exam. She _____ harder.

a. must have studied            c. could have studied    b. should have studied  d. must studied






(Động từ khiếm khuyết trong câu bị động)


1. Active:   S + can / will / shall / may / could / must … + V1 + O

Passive: S + can / will / shall / may / could / must … + be + V3/-ed + by + O

2. Active:  S + may / could / must/ should … + have+  V3/ed + O

Passive: S + can / will / shall / may / could / must … + have  been+ V3/-ed + by + O



Ex1: People should protect the living environment.

      The living environment should be protected

* Note:

 Một số những hình thức động từ khác sử dụng tương đương như động từ khiếm khuyết




(be) able to

(be) going to

have / has / had to

used to

(be) able to be + V3

(be) going to be + V3

have / has / had to be + V3

used to be + V3




TAG QUESTIONS( Câu hỏi đuôi)


* Lan: It looks beautiful, doesn’t it?

Mai: Yes, it does

* You are a student, aren’t you?

Ex2: The film wasn’t very interesting, was it?

Ex3: Mary does a lot of homework every day, doesn’t she?

Ex4: John didn’t go to school yesterday, did he?

Ex5: We have seen this film twice, haven’t we?

Ex5: They can swim very fast, can’t they?

b. Formsauxiliary verb (+ not) + pronoun.


Câu phát biếu

Câu hỏi đuôi

Ví dụ

Khẳng định

Phủ định

Phủ định

Khẳng định

English is difficult, isn’t it?

You didn’t come to class late, did you?


+ HTD: do( don’t)/ does( doesn’t)

+ HTTD: is( isn’t)/ are ( aren’t)

+ HTHT: has( hasn’t)/ have( haven’t)

+ QKD: did( didn’t)

+ QKTD: was( wasn’t)/ were( weren’t)

+ QKHT: had( hadn’t)

+ Modal verb: will/ won’t, can/ can’t , could/ couldn’t……


c. Notes:

- Let’s + V(bare), shall we ?

- (Please +) V(bare) , will you ? (câu mệnh lệnh)

E.g: Close the door, will you?

- I am ……, aren’t I ?

- This / That (is ……), (isn’t) it ?

- These / Those (are ……), (aren’t) they ?

- There is / are ……, isn’t / aren’t there ?

- Nobody / No one + V(khẳng định) …, auxi / modal (khăng định) they ?

- Everthing/something/anything... , .............it?

- Everybody/ everyone/ someone/ ..., ................they?

- S + never / rarely / seldom / no longer…,VERB (khẳng định) + S ?

E.g: Nobody like him, do they?



I. Complete the sentences


II. Choose the best answer:

1. The English like watching football, _____________?

A. doesn't she                 B. aren't they               C. don't they                D. doesn't he

2. Let's have a drink, ______________?

A. shalln't we                   B. do we                       C. shall we                   D. don't we

3. The weather is hot today, _____________?

A. isn't he                         B. isn't there                 C. aren't they                D. isn't it

4. Buy me something to drink, ____________?

A. aren't you                    B. won't you                 C. don't you                  D. will you

5. You have not seen Romeo and Juliet, _____________?

A. will you                        B. are you                     C. do you                      D. have you

6. Who watered the flowers yesterday afternoon?  Lan ___________ .

A. was                              B. had                           C. did                             D. would

8. You enjoy watching football, ________?

A. don't you                    B. do not you               C. do you                      D. aren't you

9. You did not do your homework, ________?

A. do you                         B. are you                     C. did you                    D. will you

10.                                      You have a ticket to the game, _______?

A. do you                         B. haven't you             C. don't you                 D. have you

11. You are not hungry, ________?

A. do you                         B. don't you                  C. aren't you                D. are you

12. You had a bad cold last night, ________?

A. didn't you                  B. hadn't you               C. wouldn't you            D. weren't you

13. You will go on to university when you finish school next year, ________?

A. wouldn't you               B. will not you              C. won't you                D. will you

14. You were at the library last Monday afternoon, _________?

A. did you                         B. weren't you            C. were you                  D. didn't you

15. Lan said that her parents were going to Ho Chi Minh city the next Friday, ________?

A. hadn't she                   B. didn't she               C. weren't they             D. didn't they

16. You don't like coffee, __________?

A. do not you                   B. don't you                  C. do you                     D. are you

17. These are Japanese cars, _________?

A. aren't we                     B. don't they                 C. isn't it                         D. aren't they

18. You can speak French, _________?

A. cannot you                  B. could you                 C. can't you                 D. can you

19.                                      Sally turned in her report, _______?

A. had she                       B. did she                     C. hadn't see                D. didn’t she





(Câu điều kiện)


1. TYPE 0 : Khi muốn nhắn nhủ ai đó, Chỉ thói quen,  khi muốn nhấn mạnh

         If + S + V(s/es) + O         ,           S + V (s/es) + O


- Khi muốn nhắn nhủ ai đó

E.g: If you see Nam, you tell him I’m in Vietnam

- Chỉ thói quen

E.g: If the doctor has morning office hours, he visits his patients in the hospital in the afternoon

- khi muốn nhấn mạnh

E.g: If you have any trouble, please telephone me though 654321


Exercise : Supply the correct verb form in the bracket

1/ If he (study) ________ harder, he can pass an exam.

2/ She may be late if she (not hurry) ________.     

3/ Tell him to ring me if you (see) ________ him.

4/. If she (need)__________ a radio she can borrow mine.

5/ If you (learn) _________ well, you can get a good job.


Key :

1. study

2. doesn’t hurry

3. see

4. need

5. learn


2. TYPE 1: điều kiện nêu lên giả thiết có thể xảy ra ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai


IF CLAUSE (Mệnh đề If)

MAIN CLAUSE (Mệnh đề chính)

                         Simple Present

      S + V[-e/es]

      S + don’t / doesn’t + V(inf)

Simple Future

       S + will + V(inf)

       S + will not + V(inf)

       Will + S + V(inf)…?



Eg: If I save enough money, I will buy a new car.


2. TYPE 2: điều kiện nêu lên giả thiết không có thật ở hiện tại


IF CLAUSE (Mệnh đề If)

MAIN CLAUSE (Mệnh đề chính)

Simple Past (Be à were)

      S + V-ed/2

      S + didn’t + V(inf)

S + would / could + V(inf)

S + wouldn’t / couldn’t +V(inf)

Would / Could + S + V(inf)… ?



Ghi chú : Trong câu điều kiện 2 ở mệnh đề if chỉ dùng : To be là were cho mọi chủ từ


Eg: If I were you, I would tell the truth.


3. TYPE 3: điều kiện nêu lên giả thiết không có thật ở quá khứ


IF CLAUSE (Mệnh đề If)

MAIN CLAUSE (Mệnh đề chính)

Past Perfect

      S + had + V-ed/3

      S + hadn’t + V-ed/3

S + would / could have + V-ed/3

S + wouldn’t / couldn’t have + V-ed/3

Would / Could + S + have + V-ed/3…?




Eg: If I had arrived ten minutes earlier, I would have got a seat.





·         Câu điều kiện loại hỗn hợp 1 (Loại 3 và loại 2)


 - Để diễn tả giả thiết trái ngược với quá khứ, nhưng kết quả thì trái ngược với hiện tại.

IF CLAUSE (Mệnh đề If)

MAIN CLAUSE (Mệnh đề chính)

Past Perfect

      S + had + V-ed/3

      S + hadn’t + V-ed/3

S + would / could + Vo

S + wouldn’t / couldn’t + Vo

Would / Could + S + Vo…?



- Thời Gian của mệnh đề If trong quá khứ ( yesterday, lastnight,last….) và thời gian ở

mệnh đề chính ở hiện tại ( now, today, ..)


Eg : If he had worked harder at school, he would be a student now


·         Câu điều kiện loại hỗn hợp 2 (Loại 2 và loại 3)


- Để diễn tả giả thiết trái ngược với thực tại, còn kết quả thì trái ngược với quá khứ.


IF CLAUSE (Mệnh đề If)

MAIN CLAUSE (Mệnh đề chính)

Past Simple

      S + V-ed/2

      S + didn’t + Vo

S + would / could have + V-ed/3

S + wouldn’t / couldn’t have + V-ed/3

Would / Could + S + have + V-ed/3…?




Eg : If I were you, I would have learned English earlier.


- Note: Ta có thể lược bỏ "If" đi nhưng phải đảo ngữ


Eg: Had I arrived ten minutes earlier, I would have got a seat.


- Unless = If … not


- Đổi từ if sang unless:

=  Unless you   +  V(inf)…          ,      Clause (Simple Future)

=  If you don’t  +  V(inf)…         ,      Clause (Simple Future)




Khẳng định

Khẳng định (động từ trong mệnh đề chính đổi sang phủ định)

Phủ định

Khẳng định (mệnh đề chính không thay đổi)


Eg: If we had more rain, our crops would grow faster.

     à Unless  we had more rain, our crop wouldn’t grow faster

Eg :  If she doesn’t work harder, she will fail the exam.

    à Unless she works harder, she will fail the exam

Câu đk loại 1: If clause = should+S+V



EXERCISE I .  Choose the best option.


1.    If she ………..him,she would be very happy.
A-would meet      B-will meet    C-is meeting D-should meet

2.    If he ……….a thorough knowledge of English, he could have applied for this post.
A-had had          B-had             C-has             D-has had

3.    If I had enough money,I……….…abroad to improve my English.
A-will go   B-would go C-should go D-should have go to

4.    The bench would collapse if they………..…on it.
A-stood   B-stand          C-standing    D-stands

5.    If it…………convenient, let’s go out for a drink tonight,
A-be                      B-is                C-was                         D-were

6.    If you………….time, please write to me.
A-have     B-had             C-have had   D-has

7.    I shouldn’t go there at night if I …………...you.
A-am                    B-was                         C-be               D-were

8.    If I ……………….get a pole, I will go fishing.
A-can                   B-could          C-may                        D-might

9.    If you had the chance,……………….you go fishing?
A-did                     B-may                        C-would        D-do

10.  If you ……………...a choice, which country would you visit?
A-have                 B-had                         C-have had   D-will have



EXERCISE III.    Rewrite these sentences, using “ Unless” instead of “ If”


1.          If you are not careful, you will cut yourself with that knife.

→   Unless you are careful, you will cut yourself with that knife.

2.          If you do not like this one, I’ll bring you another.

→   Unless you like this one, I’ll bring you another.

3.          I’ll not be able to do any work if I do not have a quiet room.

→   Unless I have a quiet room, I won’t be able to do any work  .

4.          If she doesn’t hurry, she’ll be late.

→   Unless she hurries, she’ ll be late.

5.          If you don’t study hard, you’ll fail in the exam.

→    Unless you study hard, you‘ ll fail in the exam.

6.          If she doesn’t water these tree, they will die.

→     Unless you water these tree, they will die.

7.          If I have time, I’ll help you.

→     Unless I have time, I won’t help you.

8.          If I win a big prize in a lottery, I’ll build a school for the poor.

→     Unless I win a big prize in a lottery, I won’t build a school for the poor.

9.          If you don’t like this one, I’ll bring you another.

→     Unless you like this one, I’ll bring you another.

10.       If you aren’t more careful, you’ll have an accident.

→     Unless you like this one, you won’t have an accident.


EXERCISE IV: Rewrite these sentences with “If ……”:


1. She didn’t get up early so she was late for the meeting.

à If she had got up early, she wouldn’t have been late for the meeting

2. I lost the way to come back the hotel because I hadn’t got the map of this city.

à I had had got the map of this city, I wouldn’t have lost the way to come back the hotel

3. Because of the heavy rain, we came to the class late.

à If It hadn’t rained, we couldn’t have come the class late.

4. She felt so tired and she couldn’t go to the cinema with us.

à If she hadn’t felt tired, she could have gone to the cinema with us.

5. My father went to work yesterday so he didn’t know what happened to me.

à If my father hadn’t gone to work yesterday, he would have known what happened to me.

6. The teacher’s question was so difficult that I couldn’t answer.

à If the teacher’s question hadn’t been so difficult, I could have answered.

7. He missed the first bus because he didn’t start earlier.

à If he had started earlier, he couldn’t have missed the first bus.

8. She failed the final exam because she didn’t learn hard.

à If she had learnt hard, she couldn’t have failed the final exam.

9. Because you don’t stop immediately, I call your teacher.

à If you stopped immediately, I wouldn’t call your teacher.

10. I couldn’t phone Alice because I didn’t know her telephone number.

à If I had known her telephone number, I would have phoned her.



RELATIVE CLAUSES  (Mệnh đề quan hệ)



1. WHO:

- làm chủ từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ

- thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người

 ….. N (person) + WHO + V + O


Eg : Nam is the boy who sings well.

2. WHOM:

- làm túc từ cho động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ

- thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người

…..N (person) + WHOM + S + V


Eg : Nam is the boy whom I saw yesterday



- làm chủ từ hoặc túc từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ

- thay thế cho danh từ chỉ vật

….N (thing) + WHICH + V + O

….N (thing) + WHICH + S + V


Eg :                                                                                   Take the book which is on the table.

   This is the book which I bought.                            


4. THAT:  thay thế cho cả người và vật

      - có thể thay thế cho vị trí của who, whom, which trong mệnh đề quan hệ quan hệ xác định

* Các trường hợp thường dùng “that”:

- khi đi sau các hình thức so sánh nhất

- khi đi sau các từ: only, the first, the last

- khi danh từ đi trước bao gôm cả người và vật

- khi đi sau các đại từ bất định, đại từ phủ định, đại từ chỉ số lượng: no one, nobody, nothing, anyone, anything, anybody, someone, something, somebody, all, some, any, little, none.

Ex: He was the most interesting person that I have ever met.

      It was the first time that I heard of it.

      These books are all that my sister left me.

      She talked about the people and places that she had visited.

* Các trường hợp KHÔNG dùng “that”:

- sau giới từ

- trong mệnh đề không xác định

5. WHOSE :

         - dùng để chỉ sở hữu cho danh từ chỉ người hoặc vật

         - thường thay cho các từ : her, his, their, hoặc hình thức ‘s


       …. N (person, thing) + WHOSE + N + V …….


                                                                                                   Eg : Nam is the boy whose father is a doctor.

   è   This is the book the cover of which is blue


6. WHERE : thay thế cho 1 danh từ chỉ nơi chốn : where = in which/on which/ at which

       …… N (place) + WHERE + S + V …..


   Eg : The hotel wasn’t very clean. We stayed at that hotel.

       è  The hotel where we stayed wasn’t very clean.

        è The hotel at which we stayed wasn’t very clean.

7. WHEN : thay thế cho từ chỉ thời gian : when = in which/ on which/ at which

      …… N (reason) + WHEN + S + V …..


   Eg : Do you still remember the day? We first met on that day.

   è   Do you still remember the day when we first met.

   è   Do you still remember the day on which we first met.


8. WHY : thay thế cho từ chỉ lý do : the reason, for that reason : why = for which

       …… N (reason) + WHY + S + V …..


Eg : I don’t know the reason. You didn’t go to school for that reason.

   è  I don’t know the reason why you didn’t go to school.




   Có 2 loại mệnh đề quan hệ :

-          Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định ( giới hạn )

-          Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định ( không giới hạn )

1.    Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định ( giới hạn ) (defining relative clauses) :

Là mệnh đề được dùng để xác định danh từ đứng trước nó. Mệnh đề xác định là mệnh đề cần thiết cho ý nghĩa của câu, không có nó câu sẽ không đủ nghĩa. Nó được sử dụng khi danh từ là danh từ không xác định và không dùng dấu phẩy ngăn cách nó với mệnh đề chính


2.    Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định ( không giới hạn ) (non- defining relative clauses)

là mệnh đề cung cấp thêm thông tin về một người, một vật hoặc một sự việc đã được xác định. Mệnh đề không xác định là mệnh đề không nhất thiết phải có trong câu, không có nó câu vẫn đủ nghĩa. Nó được sử dụng khi danh từ là danh từ xác định và được ngăn cách với mệnh đề chính bằng một hoặc hai dấu phẩy (,) hay dấu gạch ngang (-)


Ex: Dalat, which I visited last summer, is very beautiful. (Non-defining relative clause)

Note: để biết khi nào dùng mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định, ta lưu ý các điểm sau

- Khi danh từ mà nó bổ nghĩa là một danh từ riêng

- Khi danh từ mà nó bổ nghĩa là một tính từ sở hữu (my, his, her, their

- Khi danh từ mà nó bổ nghĩa la một danh từ đi với this , that, these, those




1. Mệnh đề quan hệ được rút thành cụm phân từ (V-ing ) Chủ động:


·         Nếu mệnh đề quan hệ là mệnh đề chủ động thì rút thành cụm hiện tại phân từ (V-ing).

      ………. N + which/that/who + is /are/am/was/were + V-ing + O

è …….N + Ving ……

          ………. N + which/that/who + Vs/es/ed.. + O

è ………N + V-ing………



a/ The man who is standing over there is my father.

→ The man standing over there is my father

b/ The couple who live next door to me are professors.

→ The couple living next door to me are professors

2. Mệnh đề quan hệ được rút thành cụm phân từ (V-3/ed ) bị động:

·         Nếu mệnh đề quan hệ là mệnh đề bị động thì rút thành cụm quá khứ phân từ (V3/ed)

        …………..N+ which/that/who + is/are/am/were/was + V3/ed . + by +  O

è ………..N +  V3/ed + ….


Eg :

a/ The instructions that are given on the front page are very important.

→ The instructions given on the front page are very important


3. Mệnh đề quan hệ được rút thành cụm động từ nguyên mẫu


Mệnh đề quan hệ được rút thành cụm động từ nguyên mẫu (To-infinitive) khi trước đại từ quan hệ có các cụm từ: the first, the second, the last, the only hoặc hình thức so sánh bậc nhất

………the first/ second/third/last/only .+ N + which/that/who + Vs/es/ed.. + O

è ….. the first/ second/third/last/only  + N + to – V 1  + O


a/ John was the last person that got the news.

→ John was the last person to get the news.

b/ He was the best player that we admire.

→   He was the best player to be admired.

c/ He was the second man who was killed in this way.

→   He was the second man to be killed in this way



Exercise : Complete the sentences, using a relative pronoun.


1. The girl chatted with him yesterday. She arrived here at 6:30.

→  The girl who arrived here at 6:30 chatted with him yesterday.

2. The man is talking to my father. He spent 15 minutes measuring our kitchen

→ The man is talking to my father who spent 15 minutes measuring our kitchen

3. The architect designed these flats. He has moved to HCM City.

→ The architect who has moved to HCM city designed these flats.

4. The young man lives in the corner. He rides an expensive motorbike.

→ The young man who rides an expensiive motorbike lives in the corner.

5. I’m reading the book. I bought it in 1996.

→ I’m reading the book which I bought in 1996.

6. I will introduce the man to you. He is sharing the flat with me.

→ I will introduce the man to you who is sharing the flat with me.

7. The young man is talking to our teacher. He is Ba’s brother.

→ The young man who is Ba’s brother is talking to our teacher.

8. We visited the monument. It was built a hundred years ago.

→ We visited the monument which was built a hundred years ago.

9. The boys are interested in football. It is a popular game all over the world.

→ The boys are interested in football which is a popular game all over the world

10. The boy gave his parents big hugs before he left. He went abroad to study.

→ The boy who went abroad to study gave his parents bigs hugs before he left.



Combine the two sentences by using a relative clause. Some clauses need commas, some do not:


1. The lady is a famous writer. You met her at the party last night.

→ The lady whom you met at the party last night is a famous writer.

2. The child enjoyed the chocolates. Her mother bought them from France.

→ The child whom her mother bought from France enjoyed the chocolates.

3. Dr Oley is our family’s dentist. He is a popular dentist in the city.

→ Dr Oley, who is a popular dentist in the city, is our family’s dentist.

4. They drank a lot of Coke. It is diet Coke.

→ They drank a lot of Coke which is diet Coke.

5. The river is the Sai Gon River. It flows through Ho Chi Minh City.

→ The river which flows through Ho Chi Minh City is the Sai Gon River.

6. The girls are performing the play. They rehearsed it yesterday.

→ The girls who rehearsed it yesterday are performing the play.

7. Their parents are anxious about their children. The children come back late

→ Their parents are anxious about their children,who come back late.

8. The lecturer is my uncle. He gave an interesting talk on TV last night.

→ The lecturer who gave an interesting talk on TV last night is my uncle.


9. The student kept talking about the project. It was done last week.

→ The student kept talking about the project which was done last week.

10. Mr Phong hasn’t come yet. He is supposed to be at the meeting.

→ Mr Phong, who is supposed to be at the meeting, hasn’t come yet.


Choose the best to complete the sentence:


1. My mother, ..............helped you yesterday, works in the public library.

A. that                             B. who                      C. whom                      D. whose

2. Ann quit her job at the advertising agency, ….. surprised everyone.

A. which                          B. who                                   C. that                        D. whose

3. Ann, ….. lives next door, is very friendly.

A. that                              B. which                    C. whom                    D. who

4. Mary, …... has received the scholarship, is very friendly.

A. that                              B. whose                   C. whom                    D. who

5. That is my friend, …….. comes from Japan.

A. which                          B. that                        C. who                    D. whom

6.John is always late for class, …... annoys the teacher.

A. who                            B.which                     C. that                        D. whom

7. My friend, ...... you met yesterday, was in London last year.

A. which             B. that                        C. whose                   D. whom

8. My grandfather,………….I love best , has just visited me.

A.who                              B.which                     C.that                         D.whose

9.Lan,……….called me last night, is my new classmate.

A.who                              B.which                     C.that                         D.whose

10. Marie Curie, ………was a famous French physicist , discovered  radium.

A.who                              B.which                     C.that                         D.whose

11. This is the place _________ I met my wife.

A. what                       B. where          C. which                    D. that

12. Simon is the man _________ Mary loves.

A. who                  B. which                    C. whom                    D. A&C

13. The magazine _________ you lent me is interesting.

    A. what             B. which                    C. whom                    D. whose

14. He was killed by a man ________  friends we know.

    A. whose         B. which                    C. whom                    D. that

15. He spoke to the messengers with ________  you were leaving.

    A. which           B. whom                   C. whose                   D. that




So sánh tính từ (adj) và trạng từ (adv)


I. So sánh bằng: (equal comparison)


S1 + V + as + adv + as + S2.

S1 + be + as + adj + as + S2.




*So sánh không bằng.

S1 + be not + as/so + adj + as + S2.

S1 + do/does/ did + not + as/so + adv + as + S2.




II.  So sánh kém hơn :

S1 + be + less + adj + than + S2.

S1 + V + less + adv + than + S2.





Eg:       - Nam is as tall as Hung. (Nam  thì cao bằng Hung )

             - He is not so good as his brother. ( anh ta không giỏi bằng anh trai của anh ta)

             - I am less rich than you. ( tôi không giàu bằng bạn )

             -  He is less intelligent than Helen. ( anh ta kém thong minh hơn Helen)


III. So sánh hơn. ( comparative)


·                           Đối với tính từ, trạng từ ngắn.


S1 + be + short adj- er + than + S2.

S1 + V + short adv- er + than + S2.




                  Eg : Hanoi is bigger than Hue. (Hanoi thì lớn hơn Huế .)

·                           Đối với tính từ, trạng từ dài.


S1 + be + more + long adj + than + S2.

S1 + V + more + long adv + than + S2.




                  Eg : Hanoi is more important than Hue. ( Hà nội thì quan trọng hơn Huế. )


IV. So sánh hơn nhất. (Superlative)


·                           Đối với tính từ, trạng từ ngắn. ( short adj/adv)


S + be + the + short adj-est + in/of………….

S + V + the + short adv-est + in/of………….  


                  Eg : Hanoi is the biggest City in VN. (Hà nội là thành phố lớn nhất Việt Nam.)

·                           Đối với tính từ, trạng từ dài ( long adj/adv)


S + be + the + most  + long adj+ in/of…..

S + V + the most +  long adv + in/of….


               Eg : Hanoi is the most important City in VN. ( Hà Nội là TP quan trọng nhất VN.)

V. So sánh kém nhất.


·   Tính từ và trạng từ ngắn , dài


S + be + the + least  + (long or short) adj

S + V + the least + ( long or short) adv


               Eg : He is the least studious.

               Eg : He is the least intelligent.




1. càng ngày càng …… hơn


a.      Tính từ ngắn và trạng từ ngắn :


S   +  v  +  adj / adv  + er  +  and  +  adj / adv  +  er 

(càng ngày càng …… hơn )


Ex : Betty is younger and younger. ( Betty ngày càng trẻ hơn )

Ex : The river gets bigger and bigger. ( con sông ngày càng lớn hơn )


b.      Tính từ dài, trạng từ dài ( long adv/adj)


S   +  v  +  more and more  + long adj / adv

(càng ngày càng …… hơn )


               Ex : Her story was more and more attractive. (Câu chuyện của cô ấy ngày càng hấp dẫn hơn.)

    Ex : She becomes more and more beautiful. ( Cô ấy ngày càng đẹp hơn. )

    Ex : They drive more and more carefully.       ( Họ lái xe ngày càng cẩn thận hơn .)




1.    CÀNG ….., CÀNG  


o   Đối với tính từ ngắn

The + short adj-er + S + V , the + short adj-er + S + V

The + short adv-er + S + V , the + short adv-er + S + V.

( Càng hơn thì càng ………….hơn )


 Eg: - The sooner we arrive, the better we do. ( Anh ấy đến càng sớm thì chúng tôi làm việc tốt hơn.)

          The older he gets, the weaker he is. ( ông ấy càng già thì ông ấy càng yếu.)


The + more + S + V , the + more + S + V


 Eg:  - The more you study, the more you  know. (bạn càng học thì bạn càng biết


o   Đối với tính từ dài


the more   +  adj /adv +  s  +  v , the more  +  adj/adv  +  s  +  v

( Càng hơn thì càng ………….hơn )


Eg: The more beautiful she is, the more active she is ( cô ấy càng đẹp , cô ấy càng năng động )


the adj /adv +  er  +  s  +  v , the more  + (adj/adv) +  s  +  v

the more  + (adj/adv) +  s  +  v , the adj /adv +  er  +  s  +  v

      ……………………Càng …………… ( thì ) càng…..


Eg : The heavier the coin is, the more it is worth.

Eg : The more we get together, the happier we ill be.

Eg : The more he worked, the richer he was.


the less  +  adj/adv  +  s  +  v  ,  the less +  adj /adv +    s  +  v

……Càng …………kém …………… ( thì ) càng ………kém


Eg : The less studious you are, the less successful you will be.


 Các trường hợp ngoại lệ (tính từ bất qui tắc)



So sánh hơn

So sánh hơn nhất

Good/ well  (tốt)


the best

Bad/ badly   (xấu)


the worst

Many/ much  (nhiều)


the most

Little (ít)


the least

Far (xa)


the farthest/furthest

Old (già)


The oldest/eldest

Near (gần)


The nearest/next


EXERCISE 2: Complete the sentences using “Double” Comparatives


1. It’s becoming harder and harder to find a job (hard)

2. The hole in your pullover is getting bigger and bigger. (big)

3. My bags seemed to get heavier and heavier as I carried them (heavy)

4. As I waited for my interview, I became  more and more nervous. (nervous)

5. As the day went on the weather got worse and worse. (bad)

6. Travelling is becoming more and more expensive. (expensive)

7. As the conversation went on, he became more and more talkative. (talkative)

8. Since she has been in England, her English has got better and better. (good)


EXERCISE 3. Choose the best option to complete the following sentences:


1. The more she smiles , ................ she becomes.

A. more graceful B. the most graceful            C. most graceful      D. the more graceful

2. Hotels have developed …………………… restaurants.

A. as rapidly as B. so rapidly as                     C. as rapid as                       D. more rapid

3. Can Tho bridge is the ……………………  one in the South of Viet Nam.

A. long                B. shortest                                       C. longest                           D. longer

4. A super market is …………………… a shopping center.

A. less convenient as                                                    B. less convenient than

C. not so convenient than                                            D. the most convenient as

5. Impalas cannot move as ................ cheetahs but they are more efficient runners.

A. faster than                  B. fast as                              C. fast                         D. are fast as

6. Both are informative articles, but this one is ................ .

A. best                              B. the best                            C. most                       D. better

7. She is the .…………  girl in our town.

A. more beautiful           B. beauty                               C. most beautiful       D. more beautifully 

8. The harder you learn.............

A. The better is your English                                       B. The better will be your English

C. The better becomes your English                         D. The better your English will be

9. Jim is the ................. in his class.

A. clever              B. cleverest                          C. cleverer                 D. more clever

10. Of the two shirts, this one is ...................

A. the prettiest              B. the most pretty     C. prettier                   D. the prettier

11. Your house is ................. mine.

A. as bigger as               B. many times as big as      C. much big as        D. not many times big

12. Last year it wasn’t as cold as this year.

A. This year it is as colder than last year.                  B. This year it  is colder than last year.

C. This year it isn’t as cold as last year.                     D. This year it isn’t colder than last year.

13. She is older than me.

A. I’m more younger than her.                         B. I’m as younger as her.

C. I’m more young than her.                                        D. I’m younger than her.

14. The test is not …………………

A. as difficult as it was last month.                             B. so difficult as it was last month       

C. more difficult as it was last month.             D. Both A & B are correct       

15. The Nile River is ………………… of all.

A. longer              B. the longest                     C. long                                   D. longest

16. .................. we read, .................. we know.

A. The most/ the most         B. The more/ the more           C. Most/ most                        D. More/ more

17. It gets  ................... Let’s go swimming.

A. hot and hot                 B. the more hot                                C. more and more hot         D. hotter and hotter

18. Peter usually drives  .................. than Mary.

A. more fast                    B. more fast than                 C. more fast                         D. faster

19. The problem seems to be  ..................

A. more serious  B. more serious than                       C. more serious as              D. more and more serious

20. Peter cannot earn  .................. his wife.

A. as many money as    B. as much money as                   C. as many money than    D. as much money than


EX4. Rewrite the sentences using DOUBLE COMPARATIVE (associated comparison)

1.    The apartment is big. The rent is high.

à The bigger apartment is, the higher rent is.

2. We set off soon. We will arrive soon.

à The sooner we set off, the sooner we will arrive.

2.    The joke is good. The laughter is loud.

à The better joke is, the louder laughter is.

4. She gets fat. She feels tired.

à The fatter she gets, the more tired she feel.

5. As he gets older, he wants to travel less.

à The older he gets, the less he wants to travel.

6. The children are excited with the difficult games.

à The more difficult games are, the more excited the children are.

7. People dive fast. Many accidents happen.

à The faster people dive, the more accidents happen.

8. I meet him much. I hate him much

à The more I meet him, the more I hate him.

9. the hotel is expensive, the services are good.

 à The more expensive hotel is, the better services are.

10. As he has much money, he wants to spend much.

à The much more money he has, the more he wants to spend.

  11. If you read many books, you will have much knowledge.

à The much more books you read, the much more knowledge you will have.

  12. He speaks too much and people feel bored.

à The more he speaks, the more bored people feel.

10-  You write fast, your writing becomes illegible.

 à The faster you write, the more illegible your writing becomes.

11. She is mature, she becomes beautiful.

à The more mature  she is, the more beautiful she becomes.

12. He study much, he becomes stupid.

 à The more he study, the more stupid he becomes

13. He drinks much water, he becomes thirsty.

 à The much more water he drinks, the more thirsty he becomes.

14.  He is mature, he becomes intelligent

 à The more mature he is, the more intelligent he becomes.

15. You speak English much, your English will be good.

à The more you speak English, the better your English will be.

16. We make much paper, it becomes cheap.

 à The much more paper we make, the cheaper it becomes.

17. Petrol becomes expensive, people drive little.

à The more expensive petrol becomes, the less people drive.

18. You make much money, you spend much.

 à The much more money you make, the more you spend.

19. Means of transport are cheap, they become popular.

à The cheaper means of transport are, the more popular they become.

20. She studies hard, she will get good grades.

 à The harder she studies, the better grades she will get.





( cụm động từ)


- Cụm động từ gồm 2 phần ĐỘNG TỪ ( call, look,… ) và trạng từ hoặc giới từ ( off, out…..). Nghĩa của cụm động từ thường khác với nghĩa của động từ và trạng từ khi đứng riêng lẻ.

- Một số cụm động từ có túc từ :  call off, find out, hand in, look up….

      + Nếu túc từ là danh từ, nó sẽ đứng sau trạng từ/ giới từ

      Eg : You need to give up smoking.

      + Nếu túc từ là đại từ, nó sẽ đứng giữa động từ và trạng từ/ giới từ.

      Eg : Can I take it off?  

- Một số cụm động từ không có túc từ : look out, check in, carry on, shut up, take off.

- Sau đây là một số các cụm động từ thường dùng.

1.    go off = explode :                            phát nổ

2.     go off = ring :                                  báo thức

3.     look after = take care of :             chăm sóc

4.     try out = test :                                 thử

5.     take after = look like = resemble: giống

6.     hold up = postpone = delay= put off  : trì hoãn

7.     get over = recover from :              bình phục

8.     establish (v) = set up :                  thành lập

9.     fill in :                                               điền vào

10. look for = find :                                tìm kiếm 

11.  give up = stop = get rid of :          từ bỏ

12.  put on # take off :                          mặc # cởi

13.  turn on # turn off  :                         bật # tắt

14.  wash up :                                        rửa chén /bát

15.  turn up = arrive :                            có mặt, đến

16.  go on : = continue                         tiếp tục

17.  turn round :                                     quay

18.  lie down:                                         nằm xuống

19.  look down upon /on :                    coi thường , khinh rẻ

20.  look up to = respect :                    tôn trọng

21.  lose contact with :                          mất lien lạc

22.  lose one’s temper :                        nổi giận. cáu

23.  lose touch with = lose contact with : mất lien lạc 

24.  prevent s.o from s.th :                   ngăn cản ai đó ….

25.  laugh at:                                          cười chế nhạo

26.  explain s.th to sb  :                        giải thích

27.  invite sb to somewhere  :             mời ai đi đâu

28.  invite sb for lunch/ dinner/ breakfast 

29.  stare at :                                          nhìn chằm chằm

30.  point at :                                          chỉ vào

31.  write to :                                          viết cho ai

32.  listen to :                                         nghe

33.  speak to :                                        nói với ai

34.  wait for :                                          đợi

35.  talk about :                                      nói về

36.  search for : = look for                    tìm kiếm

37.  ask s.o for s.th :                             xin ai cái gì

38.  apply for a job :                              xin việc

39.  apply to sb :                                    xin ai

40.  have a discussion  about st :       thảo luận về điều gì

41.  discuss st :                                     thảo luậ

42. Break down:                                    bị hư

43. Break in:                                           đột nhập vào nhà

44. Break up with s.o:                           chia tay người yêu, cắt đứt quan hệ tình cảm với ai đ

45. Bring s.th up:                                   đề cập chuyện gì đó

46. Bring s.o up:                                    nuôi nấng (con cái)

47. Brush up on s.th:                            ôn lại

48. Call for sth:                                      cần cái gì đó; Call for s.o : kêu người nào đó, cho gọi ai đó, yêu cầu gặp ai đó

49. Carry out:                                         thực hiện (kế hoạch)

50. Catch up with s.o:                           theo kịp ai đó

51. Check in:                                          làm thủ tục vào khách sạn

52. Check out:                                       làm thủ tục ra khách sạn

53. Check sth out:                                 tìm hiểu, khám phá cái gì đó

54. Clean s.th up:                                  lau chùi

55. Come across as:                            có vẻ (chủ ngữ là người)

56. Come off:                                         tróc ra, sút ra

57. Come up against s.th:                   đối mặt với cái gì đó

58. Come up with:                                 nghĩ ra

59. Cook up a story:                             bịa đặt ra 1 câu chuyện

60. Cool down:                                      làm mát đi, bớt nóng, bình tĩnh lại (chủ ngữ có thể là người hoặc vật)

61. Count on s.o:                                   tin cậy vào người nào đó

62. Cut down on s.th:                           cắt giảm cái gì đó

63. Cut off:                                              cắt lìa, cắt trợ giúp tài chính

64. Do away with s.th:                          bỏ cái gì đó đi không sử dụng cái gì đó

65. Do without s.th:                               chấp nhận không có cái gì đó

66. Dress up:                                         ăn mặc đẹp

67. Drop by:                                           ghé qua

68. Drop s.o off:                                     thả ai xuống xe

69. End up:                                             có kết cục = wind up

70. Figure out:                                       suy ra

71. Find out:                                           tìm ra

72. Get along/get along with s.o:        hợp nhau/hợp với ai

73. Get in: đi vào

74. Get off:                                             xuống xe

75. Get on with s.o:                               hòa hợp, thuận với ai đó

76. Get out:                                            cút ra ngoài

77. Get rid of s.th:                                  bỏ cái gì đó

78. Get up:                                             thức dậy

79. Give up s.th:                                    từ bỏ cái gì đó

80. Go around:                                      đi vòng vòng

81. Go down:                                         giảm, đi xuống

82. Go out: đi ra ngoài, đi chơi

83. Go up: tăng, đi lên

84. Grow up:                                          lớn lên

85. Help s.o out:                                    giúp đỡ ai đó

86. Hold on:                                            đợi tí

87. Keep on doing s.th:                        tiếp tục làm gì đó

88. Keep up sth:                                    hãy tiếp tục phát huy

89. Let s.o down:                                   làm ai đó thất vọng

90. Look after s.o:                                 chăm sóc ai đó

91. Look around:                                   nhìn xung quanh

92. Look at sth:                                      nhìn cái gì đó

93. Look forward to something/Look forward to doing something: mong mỏi tới sự kiện nào đó

94. Look into sth:                                   nghiên cứu cái gì đó, xem xét cái gì đó

95. Look sth up:                                     tra nghĩa của cái từ gì đó

96. Look up to s.o:                                kính trọng, ngưỡng mộ ai đó

97. Make s.th up:                                  chế ra, bịa đặt ra cái gì đó

98. Make up one’s mind:                      quyết định 

99. Move on to s.th:                              chuyển tiếp sang cái gì đó

100.  Pick s.o up:                                   đón ai đó

101.  Pick s.th up:                                  lượm cái gì đó lên

102.  Put s.o down:                               hạ thấp ai đó

103.  Put s.o off:                                     làm ai đó mất hứng, không vui

104.  Put s.th off:                                   trì hoãn việc gì đó

105.  Put s.th on:                                   mặc cái gì đó vào

106.  Put sth away:                                cất cái gì đó đi

107.  Put up with s.o/ s.th:                    chịu đựng ai đó/ cái gì đó

108.  Run into s.th/ s.o:                         vô tình gặp được cái gì / ai đó

109.  Run out of s.th:                             hết cái gì đó

110.  Set s.o up:                                     gài tội ai đó

111.  Set up s.th:                                   thiết lập, thành lập cái gì đó

112.  Settle down:                                  ổn định cuộc sống tại một chỗ nào đó

113.  Show off:                                       khoe khoang

114.  Show up:                                       xuất hiện

115.  Slow down:                                   chậm lại

116.  Speed up:                                     tăng tốc

117.  Stand for:                                      viết tắt cho chữ gì đó

118.  Take away (take sth away from s.o): lấy đi cái gì đó của ai đó

119.  Take off: cất cánh (chủ ngữ là máy bay), trở nên thịnh hành, được ưa chuộng (chủ ngữ là ý tưởng, sản phẩm..)

120.  Take s.th off:                                 cởi cái gì đó

121.  Take up:                                        bắt đầu làm một họat động mới (thể thao, sở thích,môn học)

122.  Talk s.o in to s.th:                        dụ ai làm cái gì đó

123.  Tell s.o off:                                    la rầy ai đó

124.  Turn around:                                 quay đầu lại

125.  Turn down:                                    vặn nhỏ lại

126.  Turn off:                                         tắt

127.  Turn on:                                         mở

128.  Turn sth/s.o down:                       từ chối cái gì/ai đó

129.  Turn up:                                         vặn lớn lên

130.  Wake up:                                       (tự) thức dậy Wake s.o up: đánh thức ai dậy

131.  Warm up:                                      khởi động

132.  Work out:                                       tập thể dục, có kết quả tốt đẹp

133.  Work s.th out:                               suy ra được cái gì đó

EXERCISE : Multiple choice

1.      Do you want to stop in this town, or shall we _______?

A. turn on      B. turn off C. go on        D. look after

2.      Who will ________ the children while you go out to work?

A. look for    B. look up C. look after D. look at

3.      Please ________ the light, it’s getting dark here.

A. turn on      B. turn off           C. turn over   D. turn into

4.      The nurse has to _________ at the midnight.

{take (sth) over: take control of or responsibility for}

A. take care     B. take on        C. take over   C. take off

5.      There is an inflation. The prices __________.

A. are going on      B. are going down    C. are going over D. are going up

6.      Remember to _______ your shoes when you are in a Japanese house.

A. take care     B. take on         C. take over   C. take off

7.      You can __________ the new words in the dictionary.

A. look for     B. look after         C. look up     D. look at

8.      It’s cold outside. __________ your coat.

A. Put on      B. Put down        C. Put off       D. Put into

9.      Frank never turns up on time for a meeting.

A. calls       B. arrives   C. reports       D. prepares

10.  Never put off until tomorrow what you can do today.{ p ut off: postpone: delay}

A. do             B. let         C. delay         D. leave

11.  My father still hasn’t really recovered from the death of my mother.

A. looked after      B. taken after     C. gone off        D. got over

12.  The bomb exploded with a loud bang which could be heard all over the town.

A. went on      B. went out        C. went off    D. went away

13.  John, could you look after my handbag while I go out for a minute.

A. take part in     B. take over       C. take place       D. take care of

14.  Bill seems unhappy in his job because he doesn’t get _______ his boss.

A. up to     B. on for       C. on well with        D. in with

15.   Why do they ______ talking about money all the time?

A. keep on      B. give up         C. take after  D. stop by

16.  My father gave up smoking two years ago.

A. liked       B. continued          C. stopped   D. enjoyed

17.  The government hopes to _________ its plans for introducing cable TV.

A. turn out     B. carry out        C. carry on    D. keep on

18.  When the tenants failed to pay their bill, the authorities decided to _____ the gas supply to the flat.

A. cut down    B. cut out            C. cut off       D. cut up

19.  Look out! There’s a car coming!

   A. The car is behind you, so you should run.

  B. Don’t go away because the car is coming.

   C. Hurry up or you will be late for the car.

                 D. You should be careful because the car is coming.

20.  I was born in Scotland but I ________ in Northern Ireland.

A. grew up      B. raised           C. brought up            D. rose

21.  How do you start the computer?

A. How does the computer turn on?   B. How do you turn on the computer?

C. How do you turn  the computer on?  D.  Both B and C are correct

22.  I/ not accept/ offer/ turn down/

   A. I couldn’t accept his offer to avoid turning down him.

   B. I couldn’t accept his offer because he was turned down.

   C. I couldn’t accept his offer, so I turned it down.

   D. I couldn’t accept his offer whether I was turned down.

23.  Both Ann and her sister look like her mother.

A. take after    B. take place   C. take away D. take on

24.  I’ll be back in a minute, Jane. I just want to try out my new tape recorder.

A. resemble   B. test     C. arrive         D. buy

25. She got angry when they started to………. her private life.

A. ask for      B. enquire after   C. ask about    D. enquire with

26. She ran in a marathon last week but………. after ten kilometers. {withdraw}

A. dropped out    B. closed down    C. broke up           D. made up

27. Gertrude takes……….her mother; she has blue eyes and fair hair too.

A. in    B. up      C. after         D. down

28. It took him a long time to ………. the death of his wife.

A. take away   B. get over C. take off    D. get through

29. There were so many kinds of cameras………., and I didn't know which to buy.

   A. to choose             B. choosing from  

   C. chosen       D. to choose from

30. Billy hasn't been working; he won't………. his examinations.

A. get off     B. get through   C. keep up           D. keep off

31. They arrived………. the airport………. good time for the plane.

A. in - on    B. to - in C. at - in       D. to - for

32. Did Mr. Tan………. the class while Miss Fiona was ill in hospital?

A. take away   B. take over     C. take up          D. take off

33. Paula applied for the post but she was………..

A. turned down  B. checked out    C. kept under        D. pushed ahead

34. If orders keep coming in like this, I'll have to………. more staff.

A. give up   B. add in            C. gain on                        D. take on

35. Why do they………. talking about money all the time?

A. keep on    B. side with    C. take after            D. work off

36. In addition to Mr. Thomas and Miss White, the principal………. attend the school party.

A. is likely   B. is going to     C. are likely             D. are going to

37.  We were too tired to wash ________ after the meal.

A. over         B. out         C. up  D. on

38.  I don't know whether I'll go out tonight. It depends ________ how I feel.

A. in                      B. at   C. on  D. over

39.  The police made an appeal ________ the public to remain calm.

A. by           B. to C. at    D. for

40.  These policies ________ in many elderly and disabled people suffering hardship.

A. recalled     B. succeeded   C. resulted     D. resigned




(Động từ nguyên mẫu có “to”, nguyên mẫu không “to”, danh động từ)


1. To-infinitive / Infinitive with to ( động từ theo sau là  “To-V”


V + to inf


- hope: hy vọng                            - offer:  đề nghị                       - expect: mong đợi

- plan: lên kế họach                   - refuse: từ chối                    - want: muốn

- promise: hứa                            - pretend: giả vờ                   - fail: thất bại, hỏng

- attempt: cố gắng, nỗ lực        - tend: có khuynh hướng   - threaten: đe dọa

- intend: định                              - seem: dường như             - decide: quyết định

- manage: xoay sở, cố gắng    - agree: đồng ý                     - ask: yêu cầu

- afford: đáp ứng            - arrange: sắp xếp                - tell: bảo

- appear: hình như                    - learn: học/ học cách                     - invite: mời

- would like                                  - offer: cho, tặng, đề nghị


* Trong các cấu trúc:


 It takes / took + O + thời gian + to inf


    + chỉ mục đích

    + bổ ngữ cho danh từ hoặc đại từ:


S + V + Noun / pronoun + to inf


           I have some letters to write.

           Is there anything to eat?


It + be + adj + to inf: thật … để ..


Ex: It is interesting to study English


S + be + adj + to inf


Ex: I’m happy to receive your letter.


   + S + V + too + adj / adv + to inf

   + S + V + adj / adv + enough + to inf

   + S + find / think / believe + it + adj + to inf


Ex: I find it difficult to learn English vocabulary.

- Sau các từ nghi vấn: what, who, which, when, where, how,… (nhưng thường không dùng sau why)


Ex: I don’t know what to say.

* Note:

- allow / permit/ advise / recommend + O + to-inf                  She allowed me to use her pen.

- allow / permit / advise / recommend + V-ing                        She didn’t allow smoking in her room


2. Bare infinitive / Infinitive without to ( động từ theo sau là động từ nguyên mẫu không có “to” )


V + Vo


a.    Động từ chỉ giác quan


S + hear/heard , sound, smell/smelt, taste, feel/felt, watch, notice, see/saw,... + O + Vo

(chỉ sự hoàn tất của hành động – nghe hoặc thấy toàn bộ sự việc diễn ra)


Ex: I saw her get off the bus.


b.    Sau các động từ và các cụm từ sau :


S + Let / make/made /had better/ would rather  + Vo


nhưng : to be + made + to-Vo

-       help + V1 / to-inf

-       help + O + V1 / to-inf

-       help + O + with + N

Ex: My brother helped me do my homework.

      My brother helped me to do my homework.

      My brother helped me with my homework.


c. Sau modal verbs : can , could,may. Must . will, should, shall, might, ought to, ………….


3. GERUND (V-ing)


V + V- ing


- mention: đề cập đến               - quit: từ bỏ                            - risk: có nguy cơ

- fancy: thích                               - deny: phủ nhận                 - enjoy = like = love

- imagine: tưởng tượng             - miss: bỏ lỡ                        - It is no use: không có ích

- It is no good: không tốt                       - postpone: hoãn lại                       - suggest: đề nghị

- practice: luyện tập                   - finish                                    - admit: thừa nhận

- avoid: tránh                              - mind: ngại                           - delay: hoãn           

- hate: ghét

- give up = stop


-       waste / spend : lãng phí, bỏ ra (thời gian, tiền bạc)

-       have difficulty / trouble: gặp khó khăn/trở ngại

-       can’t help: không thể không

-       can’t stand / can’t bear: không chịu đựng nỗi

-       feel like: cảm thấy thích

-       look forward to: mong chờ, mong đợi

-       It is (not) worth: đáng / không đáng

-       keep / keep on: tiếp tục

-       be busy           + V-ing                      

-       be used to / get used to


* Sau các liên từ:

after, before, when, while, since,…


Ex: After finishing his homework, he went to bed.


* Sau các giới từ:

on, in, at, with, about, from, to, without, ….

Ex: My sister is interested in listening to pop music.


* Các động từ chỉ tri giác:

hear, sound, smell, taste, feel, watch, notice, see, listen, find .. + O + V-ing (chỉ sự việc đang diễn ra)

Ex: I smell something burning in the kitchen.


* Sau các động từ:

- Spend/ waste + time/ money + V-ing

- find / leave / catch / have + O + V- ing

- go/ come + Ving


4. INFINITIVE OR GERUND (To-inf / V-ing)


EXERCISE I:  Give  the  correct  form  of  the  verbs  in  brackets :

1.        Tom  regrets  ( spend ) spending  too  much  time  ( play ) playing computer   games .

2.    Students  stopped ( make ) making noise  when  the  teacher  came  in .

3.    He’ll  try ( not  make) not to make  the  same  mistake  again.

4.    Would  you  mind  ( turn ) turning off    the  radio  ?

5.    When  you  see  Tom,  remember ( give ) giving him  my  regards.

6.    They  postponed  ( build ) building an  elementary  school for  lack  of  finance.

7.    It’s  no  use ( advise ) advising him.  He  never  allows   anybody   (give)  ……….. advice.

8.    Is  there  anything  here  worth  ( buy ) buying ?

9.    We  missed  ( watch ) watching  a   football  match   last  night .

10. The  principal  tells   him  ( come ) to come in .

11. My  parents  decided  ( take ) to take. a  taxi  because  it  was  late.

12. Do  you  agree ( lend )   to lend me  some   money ?

13. Tom  refused  (give)  to give me  his  address .

14. You’ll  be  able  ( do ) to do it  yourself  when  you  are  older .

15.  I  didn’t  know  how ( get ) to get to  your  house ,  so  I  stopped  ( ask ) to ask the  way .

16. We  found   it  very  difficult  ( reach )  to reach a  decision .

17.  I  will  remember  ( give ) giving Mr.  Brown   your   message .

18. She  remembers  ( be ) to be taken   to  the  zoo  by  her  mother .

19. Do  you  feel  like  ( go ) going to  the  concert   or  would you  like ( stay ) to stay at  home ?

20. My  family   is  considering  (take) taking a  trip   to  the  USA  next  year.

21. The   police  didn’t  permit  ( camp ) camping in  this  wood  for  security  reasons .

22. We  don’t  allow  people ( smoke ) to smoke in  the  lecture  room.

23. The  teacher  advised  ( review) renewing the  grammatical   structures   carefully .

24. He’ s   used  to  ( go ) go on  foot  to  work  .

25. We  get   used  to  ( work ) work on  Sundays .

26. She  is  looking  forward  to  (  see ) seeing  her  friends .

27. Sometimes students  avoid ( look ) looking at  the  teacher if they don’t  want  (answer ) to answer  a   question.

28. You  should  try ( wear ) wearing any  shirts  you  want  to  buy.

29. The teacher  recommends  us   ( prepare) preparing the  lessons   well  before  ( come ) coming to  class.

30. He  went  to  bed  without   ( lock ) locking  the  doors .





I. Clauses and phrase of concession introduced by ALTHOUGH, THOUGH, EVEN  


   (mệnh đề, cụm chỉ sự nhượng bộ với ALTHOUGH, THOUGH, EVEN THOUGH, EVEN 


-       Nghĩa: Mặc dù

-       Cách dùng


although, though, even though, even if

+ Clause ( mệnh đề )

In spite of, despite

+ phrase ( cụm từ )


II. Clauses and phrase of reason introduced AS, BECAUSE, SINCE.

     (mệnh đề chỉ nguyên nhân với AS, BECAUSE, SINCE)

-       Nghĩa: Bởi vì

-       Cách dùng


Because, Since/As

+ Clause ( mệnh đề )

Because of, / Due to/ Thanks to

+ phrase ( cụm từ )


III. Clauses and phrase of result with SUCH , SO ..... THAT,  TOO..., ENOUGH..

      (mệnh đề, cụm chỉ kết quả với SUCH , SO ..... THAT, TOO..., ENOUGH..)


1.    Clause of result: ( Mệnh đề chỉ kết quả)


Œ  S - V + SO + adv/ adj + THAT + S + V (quá đến nổi)

  S - V + SUCH + ( a/ an ) + adj + noun + THAT + S + V(quá đến nổi)

Ž  S - V + SO MANY ( plural countable noun) / + THAT + S + V

                                SO MUCH ( uncountable noun )


2.    Phrase of result: ( cụm từ chỉ kết quả )


Œ S - V  + TOO + adj/ adv + ( for some one ) + TO V (quá đến nổi không thể)

 S - V + ENOUGH + noun + ( for some one ) + TO V (đủ để)

                                  Adj/ adv + ENOUGH


IV. Clauses and phrase of purpose expressed by SO THAT, IN ORDER THAT.

       (mệnh đề, cụm chỉ mục đích với SO THAT, IN ORDER THAT)

-       Nghĩa: Để

-       Cách dùng



S+ V + so that / in order that + S + can/ could/ will/ would  + Vo



 ª Khẳng định: S + V + to/ so as to/ in order to + Vo

                           S + V +  in order for some one to + Vo

ª Phủ định: S - V + so as not to/ in order not to + Vo







I. CLAUSE OF CONCESSION                   

A. Choose the best answer:

1. ________ having the best qualifications among all the applicants, Justin was not offered the job.

A. Although         B. While                    C. In spite of                        D. Despite of

2. ________ the internet is very popular, many older people do not know how to use it.

A. However                   B. Nevertheless         C. Even though     D. Despite

3. _________ he wasn’t feeling very well, David was determined to take part in the inter-university athletics meet.

A. Although                  B. While                    C. Where as            D. yet

4. __________ what Megan prepared for the job interview, she didn’t pass it.

A. Despite of                  B. In spite of             C. Though               D. However

5. Bruce was not praised_________ he was a hard worker.

A. despite                       B. in spite of             C. although             D. no matter how

6. It looks like they are going to succeed_________ their present difficulties.

A. despite                      B. although               C. in spite                 D. even though

7. Mary usually goes to parties. She likes meeting people and crowded places ________she is rather shy.

A. In spite of                   B. Even though        C. On the contrary             D. In other words

8. Ann: Have you decided to get the job?

     Terry: Yes, I’ve just decided. I’ll accept that job_________ it is not suitable with my major. It is not an interesting job, ________ the salary is very good.

A. although / but       B. despite / and          C. but / though         D. yet / however

9. ________, he has continued to work on his thesis.

A. Although all these problems           B. Even though there are problems

C. Despite of all these problems                D. In spite of there are problems

10. In spite of ____________, he was determined to finish his work.

A. was seriously ill.                                                        B. be seriously ill                              C. his serious illness                                                        D. he was seriously ill

11. _______ some German and British management styles are similar, there are many differences between them.

A. In spite                        B. In spite of              C. although              D. Despite

12. I could not eat _______ I was very hungry.

      A. even though       B. in spite                  C. despite                  D. despite of

13. In spite _______, the baseball game was not cancelled.

      A. the rain                  B. of the rain                        B. it was raining       D. there was a rain

14. _______ he had enough money, he refused to buy a new car.

      A. In spite                  B. In spite of              C. Despite                 D. Although

15. _______, he walked to the station.

      A. Despite being tired                                           B. Although to be tired

      C. In spite being tired                                              D. Despite tired

16. The children slept well despite _______.

      A. it was noise          B. the noise             C. of the noise          D. noisy

17. She left him _______ she still loved him.

      A. even if                   B. even though       C. in spite of              D. despite

18. _______ her lack of hard work, she was promoted.

      A. In spite                  B. Even though        C. In spite of                        D. Despite of

19. _______ they are brothers, they do not look alike.

      A. Although             B. Even                      C. Despite                 D. In spite of

20. Our new neighbors are quite nice _______ they are sometimes talkative.

A. despite            B. in spite of              C. though                 D. as though

21. _______ of the difficulty, they managed to climb to the top of the mountain.

      A. In spite                 B. Despite                  C. But                         D. Although

22. _____________, he could not finish the job.

      A. As hard as he work                                             B. Despite he worked hard

      C. Though he worked hard                                             D. Although hard work

23. He went to work _____________ his headache.

      A. despite                B. although               C. because                D. because of

24. Despite the fact that _______, we enjoyed our trip.

      A. the weather is bad                                              B. it is a bad weather

      C. the bad weather                                                            D. the weather was bad

25. Julie failed the exam _______ of working very hard.

      A. despite                  B. in spite                 C. even if                   D. though

26. Tom went to work despite _______.

      A. that he did not feel very well                 B. of the fact not feeling well

      C. he did not feel very well                                     D. not feeling very well

27. Though _______, they are good friends.

      A. their sometimes quarrel                                     B. to have a quarrel sometimes

      C. they sometimes have a quarrel                                D. of having a quarrel sometimes

28. Despite _______, we arrived on time.

      A. the traffic                                                             B. of the traffic                     

      C. there was heavy traffic                           D. of there was heavy traffic

29. ___________it was very cold, she did not put on her coat.

     A. In case                  B. But                         C. Even if                  D. Although

30. __________ rain or snow, there are always more than fifty thousand fans at the football games.

            A. Despite                 B. Although               C. Despite of                        D. Although

31. __________it was so cold, he went out without an overcoat.

                 A. If                             B. Since                     C. Although              D. Because

32.  We understood him __________ he spoke very fast.

                 A. because of           B. though                 C. in spite of              D. despite

33. _________ all my warnings, he tried to fix the computer himself.

                 A. Because               B. Because of         C. Although              D. In spite of

34. Hans finished school __________ his leg injury.

     A. because of                       B. despite                  C. though                 D. because

35. I try to do my homework ___________ the noise

     A. because of                       B. although               C. despite of             D. in spite of

36. ___________ it rained heavily, we enjoyed our holiday.

      A. Because of           B. Because               C. Despite                 D. Though

37. ___________ having little money, they are happy.

      A. Despite                 B. Because of           C. Although              D. Because

38. ____________ she was not well, she still went to work.

      A. Because               B. Because of           C. Although              D. In spite of

39. We are going to have a picnic  _____________ the bad weather.

      A. because                B. despite                 C. although               D. because of

40. __________ his physical handicap, he has become a successful businessman.

      A. Because of          B. Because               C. Though                 D. Despite


B. Choose the underlined part among A, B, C or D that needs correcting.

46. In spite her severe pain, she tried to walk to the auditorium to attend the lecture.

           A            B                                C                                        D

47. Despite of growing industrial activity, the majority of the American people continued

             A                       B                                                                                               C

to make their living from farming until the beginning of the twentieth century.


48. Although our grandfather was old but he could help us.

                                                  A          B          C             D

49. He tried to explain, so she refused to listen.

                          A          B             C          D

50. He decided not to get that job in spite of the salary was low.

                               A                                                   C    D

51. Although the bad traffic, I managed to arrive at the meeting on time.

            A                B                                      C      D

52. In spite of my father is old, he still goes to work.

          A                              B                 C          D  

53. Though he loves her very much, but he can’t talk to her.

                           A                  B           C                       D

54. She always behaves childishly despite she has grown up.

                             A             B             C                    D

55. Although the rise in unemployment, people still seem to be spending more.

      A                       B                                           C                              D

56. Despite he had a good salary, he was unhappy in his job.

      A         B                                     C                   D

57. Although the time of the year, yesterday’s temperature was hot enough to turn on the

            A                                              B                                                C                          D

air conditioning.

58. In spite of the quantity was small, we had enough supplies to finish the experiment.

      A                                 B                                               C           D

59. However she looks very young, she is twice as old as my-twenty-year old sister.

            A          B                               C               D

60. Despite of  his smiling face, the second place contestant is sadder than the winner.

      A                     B                                                                        C        D

C. Choose the sentence which has the closest meaning to the original one.

61. We stayed in that hotel despite the noise.

  A. Despite the hotel is noisy, we stayed there.      

  B. We stayed in the noisy hotel and we liked it.

  C. Although the hotel was noisy, we stayed there.           

  D. Because of the noise, we stayed in the hotel.

62. Young as he is, he has a big fortune.

  A. Although he is young, he has a big fortune.

  B. He has a big fortune because he is young.

  C. He is not only young but also has a big fortune.

  D. When he is young, he has a big fortune.

63. Despite the bad weather, people travel by air.

  A. Even though the weather is bad, people travel by air.

  B. Because the weather is bad, people travel by air.

  C. In spite of people travel by air, the weather is bad.

  D. Although the bad weather, people travel by air.

64. Although his leg was hurt, he managed to drive a car.

  A. His leg was hurt. However, he managed to drive a car.

  B. his leg was hurt.  But he managed to drive a car.

  C. Despite his hurt leg, he managed to drive a car.

  D. In spite of the fact that his hurt leg, he managed to drive a car.

65. He was very tired but he kept on working.

  A. Despite he was very tired, he kept on working.

  B. In spite of he was very tired, he kept on working.

  C. Though his tiredness, he kept on working.

  D. Although he was very tired, he kept on working.

66. Although she was very old, she looked very grateful.

  A. Despite she was very old, she looked very grateful.

  B. Despite her old age, she looked very grateful.

  C. In spite of very old, she looked very grateful.

  D. In spite her being old, she looked very grateful.





I/ Choose the best answer among A, B, C or D to complete each sentence.


1.                            he is tired, he can’t work longer.

A. Because                     B. Even though        C. Although              D. Besides

2.                           it was so cold, he went out without an overcoat.

A. If                                   B. Since                     C. Although              D. Because

3.                           it was late, we decided to take a taxi home.

      A. Because              B. Since                     C. Because of           D. Although

4.                           you subtract 7 from 12, you will have 5.

A. Because                        B. If                             C. Though                 D. As

5. We couldn’t reach the house                                  the road was flooded.

A. because            B. because of                       C. if                             D. though

6.                           he has a headache, he has to take an aspirin.

A. Because                       B. Because of           C. Although              D. In spite of

7. The flight had to be delayed                        the bad weather.

A. because             B. Because of          C. despite                  D. when

8.                           he comes to the theater with me, I shall go alone.

A. Because of                    B. Because               C. Unless                  D. When

9. Take a map with you                        you lose your way.

A. so                        B. because                C. although               D. in case

10.                                    rain or snow, there are always more than fifty thousand fans at the football games.

A. Even though                 B. Because               C. Despite                 D. Because of

11.                                    his illness, he had to cancel the appointment.

A.  However                        B. Despite                 C. If                             D. Because of

12. Minh had a terrible headache.                              , he went to school.

A. However             B. But                        C. Although              D. Because

13. Tom has a bike,                               he always walks to school.

A. but                                  B. because of                       C. because                D. despite

14. My sister will take the plane                                  she dislikes flying.

A. because             B. so that                   C. although              D. before

15. We decided to leave the party early                                it was boring.

A. due to                  B. because               C. but                         D. and

16. The students arrived late                           the traffic jam.

A. because             B. owing to                C. despite                  D. so

17.                                    he missed the first bus, he came ten minutes late.

A. Since                              B. Although               C. However               D. Therefore

18.                                    his physical handicap, he has become a successful businessman.

A. In spite of                      B. Because of                       C. If                             D. Although

19. It was difficult to deliver the letter                         the sender had written the wrong address on the envelope.

A. though                B. but                         C. so                           D. because

20.                                    it rained heavily, I went to school on time.

A. However             B. But                         C. Although              D. Because

21. He didn’t answer the questions correctly _______.

      A. although he isn’t intelligent                   B. because he is intelligent

      C. in spite of his intelligence                  D. despite his intelligent

22. ______, I can’t hear what he is saying.

      A. Because of the noise                           B. Because of the soft music

      C. Though the music is noise                    D. In spite of the noise music 

23. _____, I feel very refresh.

      A. Because I work very hard                                  B. Although I get up early 

      C. Because of getting up early               D. Despite getting up late

24. They live happily ______.

      A. because they have no money               B. though they are rich

      C. in spite of their poverty                           D. because of their poor 

25. He can’t join in the volunteer campaign _______.

      A. although he is busy                                            B. because he hurts his legs

      C. in spite of working very hard                 D. because of registering for it

26. Though he drove carefully, he had an accident yesterday.

      A. Despite his carelessness, he had an accident yesterday.

      B. Despite he drove carefully, he had an accident yesterday.

      C. In spite of driving carefully, he had an accident yesterday.

      D. In spite of a careful drive, he had an accident yesterday.

27. He was very tired but he kept on working.

      A. Despite very tired, he kept on working.

      B. Though his tiredness, he kept on working.

      C. Although he was very tired, but he kept on working.

      D. He kept on working although he was very tired.

28.  Although it rained heavily, they went on working.

      A. In spite of the rain heavily, they went on working.

      B. In spite of the raining heavily, they went on working.

      C. Despite the heavy rain, they went on working.

      D. Though the fact that it rained heavily, they went on working.

29. Cars cause pollution but people still want them.

      A. Because cars cause pollution, people want them.

      B. Despite the fact that cars cause pollution, people want them.

      C. Cars cause pollution although people want them.

      D. Cars cause pollution because people still want them.

30. She was seriously ill but she enjoyed life very much.

      A. In spite of her serious illness, she enjoyed life very much.

      B. Although she enjoyed life very much, she was seriously ill.

      C. She was seriously ill because she enjoyed life very much.

      D. Despite seriously ill, she enjoyed life very much.


II/ Choose the underlined part among A, B, C, or D that needs correcting:

31. My friends advised her to stop doing the housework because her old age.

A            B                           C                   D

32. Because the invention of machines such as vacuum cleaners, washing machines,

       A                                                      B

women spend less time doing the housework.

                   C             D

33. John didn’t go to work because of he was seriously ill.

A             B                    C                            D

34. In spite of my father is old, he still goes to work.

        A                             B                 C          D

35. Peter succeeded in his exam because of  he worked hard and methodically.

   A                                                B                                 C                     D

36. Rice plants grow well because the climate is warmly and damp.

                     A                  B                                    C                 D

37. The plane couldn’t take off because the bad weather.

A                    B                C                           D

38. He couldn’t drive fast owing to the street was crowded and narrow.

                               A          B                            C                   D

39. The train was late because the fog is thick.

      A                           B         C                   D

40. Since the difficult test, I couldn’t finish it on time.

         A                                   B                   C     D




A. Mark the letter A, B, C or D to indicate the correct option to fill each of the following blanks.

1. Our seats were _____ far from the stage that we couldn't see the actors and actresses clearly.

A. very                             B. too              C. enough                 D. so

2. He was _____ he never washed his clothes by himself.

A. too lazy                       B. so lazy that         C. very lazy that       D. such lazy that

3. They are _____ young _____ drive the car.

A. so / that                       B. too / to                  C. enough / to           D. not only / but also

4. It was _____ a boring speech that I felt asleep.

A. such                B. so                           C. very                                    D. too

5.  Is there _____ for everyone?

A. food and drink enough                                             B. enough food and drink

C. enough of food and drink                            D. enough food and drink enough

6. He was _____ he could not continue to work.

A. very tired that B. such tired that      C. too tired that       D. so tired that

7. John’s eyes were _____ bad that he couldn’t read the number plate of the car in front.

A. such                B. too                          C. so                          D. very

8. - Why don’t we make a fire? - It’s not cold _____   to make a fire.

A. too                                B. enough                C. such                      D. much

9. Most of the pupils are _____ to pass the examination.

A. enough good B. good enough     C. too good               D. very good

10. You can send me a letter if you want to, but your phone call is _____ for me.

A. enough good B. good as enough  C. good enough      D. good than enough

11. Davis has _____ many patients _____ he is always busy.

A. too / that                      B. very / until C. such / that                       D. so / that

12. It was _____ a difficult question that they couldn't explain.

A. so                                 B. such                      C. very                        D. too

13. The lesson _____ for me to understand.

A. is very difficult            B. too difficult           C. difficult too           D. is too difficult
14. The tent show is _____ for us to see.

A. enough interesting                B. very interesting   

C. interesting enough                         D. interesting

15. They are _____ that they can't buy a bicycle.

A. enough poor  B. poor enough        C. so poor                D. too poor

B. Mark the letter A, B, C or D to show the underlined part that needs correction.


1. These televisions are all too expensive for we to buy at this time.

                                        A        B                                C                D

2. Mi has such many things to do that she has no time to go out.

                  A                           B                   C                D       

3. My brother is too young  not to do volunteer work .

               A            B         C                          D

4. These televisions were so expensive for us to buy at that time.

A                                 B                         C             D

5. That is such an interested story that everybody would like to read it.

             A            B                     C                                          D

6. The road is very slippery for us to drive fast.

                          A         B           C                D

 7. The woman was so surprised that she couldn’t say nothing.

                                A         B                                    C       D

8. She had so many luggage that there was not enough room in the car for it.

                      A                                         B                   C                               D

9. He had so a difficult exercise that he couldn't do it.

           A   B              C                                                  D

10.  John had so interesting and creative plans that everyone wanted to work with him.

                                A                                     B                            C                          D

C. Mark the letter A, B, C or D to indicate the sentence  which is closest in meaning to the given one

1. We couldn’t go out because the weather was so bad.

A. It was so bad a weather that we couldn’t go out.

B. It was such a bad weather that we couldn’t go out.

C. It was so bad weather that we couldn’t go out.

D. It was such bad weather that we couldn’t go out.

2. She was so busy that she couldn’t answer the phone.

A. She was very busy that she couldn’t answer the phone.

B. She was too busy to answer the phone.

C. She was too busy not to answer the phone.

D. She was very busy so that she couldn’t answer the phone

3. The coffee was too hot for me to drink.

A. The coffee is so hot that I can’t drink it

B. The coffee is so hot that I can’t drink.

C. The coffee was so hot that I couldn’t drink it.           

D. The coffee was so hot that I could drink it.

4. If I were taller, I could reach the top shelf.

A. I am not tall enough to reach the top shelf.

B. I am too tall to reach the top shelf.

C. I cannot reach the top shelf because I am very tall.

D. In spite of being tall, I cannot reach the top shelf.

5. It was such a boring speech that we began to yawn.

A. The speech was very boring that we began to yawn.

B.  It was so a boring speech that we began to yawn.

C.  The speech was too boring that we began to yawn.

D. The speech was so boring that we began to yawn.

6. It was so late that nothing could be done.

A. It was too late for nothing to be done.

B.  It was too late for anything to be done.

C.  It was such late that nothing could be done.

D. It was so late that nothing to be done.

7. This is the first time I have lived in such a friendly neighborhood.

A. I have lived in such a friendly neighborhood before.

B.  I haven’t lived in such a friendly neighborhood before.

C.  I had lived in such a friendly neighborhood before.

D. I hadn’t lived in such a friendly neighborhood before.

8     The test was so difficult that we couldn’t finish it in two hours.

A. It was such a difficult test that we couldn’t finish it in two hours.

B.  The test was too difficult for us to finish it in two hours.

C.  The test was not difficult enough for us to finish in two hours.

D. The test was too difficult for us to finish it in two hour.

9. The book was so good that I couldn’t put it down.

A. It was so a good book that I couldn’t put it down.

B. It was such a good book that I couldn’t put it down.

C. The book was so good for me to put it down.

D. The book was so good that I couldn’t put down.

10. Sue is too slow to understand what you might say.

 A. Sue is not enough quick to understand what you might say.

 B. What you might say, Sue can understand slowly.

 C. Sue is so slow to understand what you might say.

 D. So slow is Sue that she cant understand what you might say.


Last modified: Saturday, 9 September 2017, 12:59 PM