Tenses (các thì cơ bản)

CÁC THÌ TRONG TIẾNG ANH

 1. PRESENT SIMPLE ( HTĐ)

Ø     Công thức: 

                       + S + V1 / Vs(es) + O

                       - S + don’t/ doesn’t + V + O

                       ? Do/ Does + S + V + O ?

* Notes:

He / she/it/N số ít + Vs,es + O

I/you/we/they/N số nhiều + V1 + O

 

 He / she/it/Nit + doesn’t + V1+ O

I/you/we/they/Nn + don’t +  V1 + O



> Dấu hiệu:

every____ (every day, every week, every night,…..)

often, sometimes, usually, always, frequently, normally,  occasionally, as a rule……

  twice a week, once a week



             2. Present continuous( HTTD)

Công thức:

S + am / is / are + V-ing

S + am / is / are + not + V-ing

Wh- + am / is / are + S + V-ing…?

* Notes:

 I am

He/she/it /Nit +is

We/they/you + are

Ø                 Dấu hiệu:

            - Listen!Look!Pay attention!Keep silent! Be quiet! Be careful....

           - now, right now, at the moment, at present, today..

 

         3. Present perfect( HTHT)

  Công thức:

S + have / has + V3/-ed

S + haven’t / hasn’t + V3/-ed

Wh- + have / has + S + V3/-ed…?

-> He/ she/it/ N ít+ has

     I/ you/ we/ they/ N nhiều+ have

Ø                  Dấu hiệu:                      

            never, ever, recently (gần đây), lately (mới đây), just (vừa mới),  already (đã rồi)

since + mốc thời gian: từ, từ khi

for  + khoảng thời gian,

 so far, up to now, up to the present, until now: cho tới bây giờ

before (trước đây), yet, (dùng trong câu phủ định và câu hỏi)

many times, several times: nhiều lần

 how long, this is the first time / the second time, four times , five times

in the last / past + số năm  in the last five years: trong năm năm qua

 

     4. Hiện tại hoàn thành tiếp diễn( Present perfect continuous)

Ø      Công thức:

S + have / has + been + V-ing

S + haven’t / hasn’t + been + V-ing

Wh- + have / has + S + been + V-ing …?

Ø     Dấu hiệu:    for + khoảng thời gian + now,

 

        5. Simple Past (Quá khứ đơn )

Ø     Công thức:                                                                                  

S + V2/-ed     + O                                                                                                

S + didn’t + V1 +O                                                      

Wh- + did + S + V1 + O?

Ø     Dấu hiệu:

-          yesterday ________ ( yesterday morning, yesterday afternoon,…….)

-          last _______ ( last year, last night, last week, last month….)

-          _______ ago ( two years ago, many months ago, ten minutes ago….)

-          in + year in the past ( một năm nào đó trong quá khứ: in 1999, in 2001…)

-          in the past, in the old times, …: trước đây, ngày xưa

Ø     Chú ý: Quá khứ đơn với : USED TO( đã từng) : nói về một thói quen trong quá khứ

* Form:

S+ used to + V1

S+ did not use to + V1

Did + S+ use to + V1

     Ex: He used to live in the city

 

6Quá khứ tiếp diễn (Past continuous):    

Ø     Công thức:

S + was / were + V-ing

                                       S + was / were + not + V-ing

                                       Wh- + was / were + S + V-ing…?

 

            Dấu hiệu

o    At + giờ + thời gian trong quá khứ: At 2p.m yesterday/ last night

o    At this/ that time + thời gian trong quá khứ

o    Khi hai mệnh đề nối với nhau bằng chữ when hoặc while

o    Note: Hai hành động xảy ra trong quá khứ: hành động ngắn dùng quá khứ đơn; hành động dài dùng quá khứ tiếp diễn.

  Last night, when they were having dinner, she entered their room.

 

  7. Quá khứ hoàn thành (Past perfect)    

 

                 FORM:  + S + had + V3/-ed

                  -  S + hadn’t + V3/-ed

                 ? Wh- + had + S + V3/-ed…?

  Dấu hiệu:  before, after, when, by the time, as soon as, as,  by + thời gian trong quá khứ

Note: Hai hành động xảy ra trong quá khứ: hành động trước dùng QKHT, hành động sau dùng QKĐ

                        Ex: She had finished her work before she went out.

 

        8. Tương lai đơn (Simple future):         

Ø            Công thức:

S + will / shall + V1

S + won’t / shan’t + V1

Wh- + will / shall + S + V1…?

  Ø              Dấu hiệu:

         next… ( next week, next month,  …..), someday, tomorrow, soon, in + năm trong tương lai, in the future …

* Note: Để diễn tả một hành động có dự định hay một dự đoán trong tương lai, ta có thể dùng BE GOING TO + V1:     

                         S + am / is / are + going to + V1

                        Ex:       - Why do you buy a lot of suger? – I’m going to make a cake.

                                    - Look at those clouds! It is going to rain.

 

9.  Tương lai tiếp diễn (Future continuous):        

Ø      Công thức:

S + will / shall + be + V-ing

S + won’t / shan’t + be + V-ing

Wh- + will / shall + S + be + V-ing …?

Ø       Dấu hiệu:

          at +  giờ trong tương lai (at 10 p.m tomorrow, at 7 pm tonight…)

         at this time + thời gian tương lai (at this time next summer, at this time next month …)

 

 

             10. Tương lai hoàn thành (Future perfect):           

Ø      Công thức:

S + will have + V3/-ed

S + won’t have + V3/-ed

Wh- + will + S + have + V3/-ed…?

                   by + mốc thời gian tron tương lai , by the time, before …

 

 

SỰ KẾT HỢP GIỮA CÁC THÌ - ĐỈNH CAO


CÁC THÌ TƯƠNG LAI KẾT HỢP VỚI HIỆN TẠI ĐƠN & HTHT

 

1.TLĐ + until / when / as soon as + HTĐ                

                                          E. g:  I will wait here until she comes back.

2. TLĐ + after + HTHT                                            

                                          E. g: He will go home after he has finished his work.

3. TLHT + by / by the time + HTĐ                            

                                        E. g: He will have left by the time you arrive.

 

CÁC THÌ QKĐ & QKTD:

 

1. while / when / as + QKTD, QKĐ                        

                                         E. g: While I was going to school, I met my friend.

2. QKĐ + while / when / as + QKTD           

                                         E. g:  It started to rain while the boys were playing  football.

3. QKTD + while + QKTD      

                               Last night, I was doing my homework while my sister was playing games.

 

THÌ HIỆN TẠI HOÀN THÀNH VÀ QUÁ KHỨ ĐƠN:

 

1. HTHT + since + QKĐ                    

                                E. g:  I have worked here since I graduated.

 

2. QKĐ + since then + HTHT     

E.g:   I (graduate) graduated  in 2002 since then I have worked  here.

 

THÌ QUÁ KHỨ HOÀN THÀNH VÀ QUÁ KHỨ ĐƠN

1. QKHT + by the time / before +  QKĐ               

                                   E. g: He had left  by the time I came.

2. After + QKHT, QKĐ                           

                                  E,g: After I had finished my homework, I went  to bed.

3.    QKĐ + after + QKHT                    

                                  E.g: I went  to bed after I had finished  my work.

4.   Before + QKĐ + QKHT           

E.g:  Before she had  dinner, she had written  letter

 

 

   **. CHUYỂN ĐỔI THÌ –(Đổi thì quá khứ đơn sang hiện tại hoàn thành)

1.1 S + last + V quá khứ đơn + thời gian + ago.

à S + V hiện tại hoàn thành (phủ định) + for + thời gian

à It’s + thời gian + since + S + last + V quá khứ đơn.

à The last time + S + V quá khứ đơn + was + thời gian + ago.

1.2. This is the first time + S + HTHT khẳng định

 à S + HTHT never + before

1.3. S + began / started + V-ing + ----

    à S + have / has + V3/-ed + for / since ---

 Ex: We last went to London two years ago.

       = We -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       = It’s -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       = The last time -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

   This is the first time I have visited Hanoi.

       - I -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    I began learning English fiv        e years ago.

       - I have ------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Choose the best answer

Câu 1. When I last saw him, he _____ in London.

        A. has lived               B. is living                   C. was living               D. has been living

Câu 2. We _______ Dorothy since last Saturday.

             A. don’t see                B. haven’t seen         C. didn’t see                D. hadn’t seen

 Câu  3. The train ______ half an hour ago.

             A. has been leaving    B. left                          C. has left                    D. had left

Câu 4. Jack ______ the door.

            A. has just painted    B. paint                       C. will have painted    D. painting

Câu  5. My sister ________ for you since yesterday.

           A. is looking               B. was looking              C. has been looking   D. looked

Câu  6. I ______ Texas State University now.

           A. am attending          B. attend                     C. was attending         D. attended

Câu 7. He has been selling motorbikes ________.

           A. ten years ago           B. since ten years        C. for ten years ago     D. for ten years

Câu 8. Christopher Columbus _______ American more than 500 years ago.

           A. discovered              B. has discovered        C. had discovered       D. had been discovering

Câu 9. He fell down when he ______ towards the church.

            A. run                          B. runs                         C. was running           D. had run

Câu  10. We _______ there when our father died.

            A. still lived                B. lived still                C. was still lived         D. were still living

Câu  11. They ______ table tennis when their father comes back home.

            A. will play                   B. will be playing       C. play                         D. would play

Câu 12. By Christmas, I _______ for Mr. Smith for six years.

            A. shall have been working              B. shall work               

            C. have been working                         D. shall be working

Câu  13. I _______ in the room right now.

           A. am being                                          B. was being               C. have been being      D. am

Câu  14. I ______ to New York three times this year.

           A. have been                                       B. was             C. were                                    D. had been

Câu  15. I’ll come and see you before I _______ for the States.

               A. leave                                            B. will leave                C. have left                 D. shall leave

Câu  16. The little girl asked what _______ to her friend.

              A. has happened       B. happened                C. had happened       D. would have been happened

Câu  17. John ______ a book when I saw him.

               A. is reading             B. read                         C. was reading                       D. reading

Câu  18. Her brother ______ in Canada at present.

           A. working             B. works                      C. is working             D. work

Câu  19. I ______ to the same barber since last year.

           A. am going           B. have been going    C. go                           D. had gone

Câu  20. Her father ______ when she was a small girl.

         A. dies                                              B. died                        C. has died                  D. had died

Câu  21. Almost everyone _______ for home by the time we arrived.

         A. leave                                            B. left              C. leaves                      D. had left

Câu  22. By the age of 25, he ______ two famous novels.

       A. wrote                                             B. writes                      C. has written              D. had written

Câu  23. While her husband was in the army, Mary ______ to him twice a week.

      A. was reading            B. wrote                      C. was written             D. had written

Câu  24. I couldn’t cut the grass because the lawn mower ______ a few days previously.

      A. broke down            B. has been broken      C. had broken down D. breaks down

Câu  24. I have never played badminton before. This is the first time I _____ to play.

      A. try                           B. tried                        C. have tried              D. am trying

Câu  25. Since _______, I have heard nothing from him.

      A. he had left              B. he left                     C. he has left               D. he was left

Câu  26. After I _______ lunch, I looked for my bag.

       A. had                                                B. had had                  C. have has                  D. have had

Câu  27. By the end of next year, George _______ English for two years.

        A. will have learned                        B. will learn                C. has learned             D. would learn

Câu  28. The man got out of the car, ________ round to the back and opened the book.

       A. walking                                         B. walked                   C. walks                      D. walk

Câu  29. Henry _______ into the restaurant when the writer was having dinner.

     A. was going                B. went                       C. has gone                 D. did go

Câu  30. He will take the dog out for a walk as soon as he ______ dinner.

       A. finish                                             B. finishes                   C. will finish               D. finishing

Câu  31. How long _____ able to drive? – since 1990.

  A. could you                       B. have you been                   C. were you           D. are you

Câu  32. They ______ since eight o’clock.

  A. are talking                      B. have been talking              C. talked               D. talk

Câu  33. My brother _______ in the army from 1990 to 1995.

  A. served                            B. has served                           C. had served       D. is serving

Câu  34. At this moment, I _____ that we have a good chance of victory.

  A. was feeling                     B. am feeling                          C. feel                  D. had been feeling

Câu  35. I _____ the money from him yet.

  A. haven’t received           B. don’t receive                       C. will receive      D. am receiving

Câu  36. This is the most interesting book _____ .

  A. I’ve read                         B.  I had read                          C. I’ve ever readed    D. I’ve ever read

Câu  37. I ____ him ten days ago.

  A. see                                  B. saw                                     C. have seen               D. will see

Câu  38. At present, that author ______ a historical novel.

  A. is writing                       B. was writing                         C. has written    D. had written

Câu  39. By next month, I _____ my first novel.

  A. will finish                       B. am going to finish              C. finish          D. will have finished

Câu  40. Mr. John_______ to Los Angeles in 1992.

  A. had gone                         B. has gone                             C. went                       D. was going

Câu  41. They ____the exercise when their teacher comes back.

      A. are doing              B. will be doing            C. do                           D. would do

Câu  42. By Christmas, I ____ for the company for five years.

A. shall have been working                                      B. shall work

     C. have been working                                      D. shall be working

Câu  43. We ______ exam at 8 o’clock next Monday.

A. will take               B. will be taking                        C. take                                    D. would take

Câu  44. By the end of next year, my son _______ English for six months.

A. will learn           B. will have learned                   C. has learned             D. had learned

Câu  45. I will contact you as soon as I ___________the information.

A. will get                B. get                               C. got                   D. had got

 


Last modified: Saturday, 2 September 2017, 9:40 AM