Passive Voice (Các dạng bị động)

PASSIVE VOICE(  BỊ ĐỘNG)

 

A. LÝ THUYẾT

à Công thức tổng quát:


Chủ động:     S +            V            + O + Adv (nơi chốn) + Adv (thời gian)

 

-> Bị động : S  +      BE (chia theo thì) + V3/ed + Adv(nơi chốn) + by  Os + Adv (thời gian)

 

I. HIỆN TẠI ĐƠN( Present simple)

        -> Chủ động:               S+            V1/s/es        +       O

        --> Bị động :                S+ am/is/are+ V3/ed+   (by O) 

 

(-)S + am not / isn’t / aren’t + V-ed/3 + by + O

                       (?)S / Are + S + V-ed/ 3 + by + O ?

Eg:  She cleans the floor everyday.        → Passive: The floor is cleaned everyday.

 

 II. PRESENT CONTINUOUS

         -> Chủ động:        S     +  am/is/are +  Ving  +           O

         -> Bị động:           S     +am/is/are+ being  + V3/ed     ( +by O)

           (-)S + isn’t/ am not / aren’t + Being + V-ed/3 + by + O

            (?)Is/ Are + S + being + Ved/3 + by + O ?

-> E.g: Mr.Baker is repairing the car →Passive: the car is being repaired by Mr Baker.

 

III. PRESENT PERFECT:

        -> Chủ động:       S     +         have/has+      V3/ed   +     O

   ->Bị động:          S        +        have/has+    been+   V3/ed    ( +by O)

 (-)S + hasn’t / haven’t + been + V3/ed + by + O

(?) Has/have + S + been + V3/ed + by + O ?

E.g: Someone has stolen  the bicycles   → Passive: The bicycles have been stolen

 

 

 

 

 

 

 IV. PAST SIMPLE:

    -> Chủ động:  S           +                      V2/ed         +            O

         --> Bị động:      S           + was/ were+     V3/ed      +          (by O)

E.g : Anna wrote a letter yesterday.

->    A letter was written by Anna yesterday

 

V. PAST CONTINUOUS:

         -> Chủ động:      S    +     was / were      +     V-ing   + O

         ->Bị động:  S         +         was / were +   being +  V3/ed         ( +by O)

                       (-)S + Wasn’t / weren’t + being + V3/ed +by + O

                       (?)  Was / were  + S +  being + V3/ed +by + O ?

E.g: Ex: They were preparing lunch when I came there yesterday

  → Lunch was being prepared when I came there yesterday

 

    VI. PAST PERFECT:

              -> Chủ động:       S        +             had      +                 V3/-ed      +     

             --> Bị động: S        +           had        +     been  + V3/-ed      (+ by O)

(-) S + hadn’t + been + V3/ed + by + O

(?) Had + S + been + V3/ed + by + O ?

E. g: She had written almost ten pages by 3:00 pm.      

→  Almost ten pages had been written by 3:00 p.m

 

VII . MODAL VERBS: (Động từ khiểm khuyết)

* Model verbs: will, be going to, should, can/ could, must, ought to, have to, need……

            -> Chủ động:  S        +         M. verbs    +              V         +            O

       --> Bị động: S        +          M.verbs     +    be + V3/ed      +        ( by O)

Eg: Students must study English hard

à English must be studied hard by students.


VIII -  BỊ ĐỘNG ĐẶC BIỆT:

1.1. TH 1: Các động từ say/ think/ know / find /believe/ expect ở hiện tại:

->   Chủ động :People / They + say/ think/ know / find /believe/ expect….  that S2 + V + O …

    ->  Bị động :

- Cách 1:   It + is  + said/thought/known/ found/believed/ expected  …. that + S2 + V+ O …(mệnh đề sau that không đổi)

- Cách 2 :  S2 + is/ are   + said/ thought… +  TO V1 (1)

     ( Nếu V: Hiện tại đơn, tương lai)

                                                      + TO HAVE V3/ED (2)

 (Nếu V: các thì ở quá khứ, hiện tại hoàn thành  )

                                                                        + TO BE V-ING (3)

(Nếu V:  Hiện tại tiếp diễn)     

E.g: They know  that he is a good pupil

        1. It is said that he is a good pupil.

        2. He is known to be a good pupil.

1.2. TH2: Các động từ said/ thought / knew / found /believed… ở quá khứ.

 Active :People / They + said/ thought / knew / found /believed/ ….  that S2 + V + O …

   Passive :

- Cách 1:   It + was  + said/thought/known/ found/believed/   …. that + S2 + V+ O …

- Cách 2 :  S2 + was/ were   + said/ thought… +  to V1 

(Nếu V ở  hiện tại)

                                                        + TO HAVE V3/ED 

                                                         (Nếu V quá khứ đơn ,quá khứ hoàn thành)

+ TO BE V-ING /TO HAVE BEEN V-ING

 (Nếu V- là thì HTTD/ Nếu V – là QKTD)

 

E.g: They knew  that he is a good pupil

        1. It was said that he is a good pupil.

        2. He was  known to be a good pupil.

 

IX-THỂ NHỜ VẢ: NHỜ/ KHIẾN AI LÀM GÌ

 A/.     VỚI ĐỘNG TỪ HAVE:

à Chủ động :     S + have/ has/ had  O( người) + V1 + O( vật)

à Bị động :     S + have/ has/ had+ O (vật)  + V3/ed + by + O (người)

E.g: I had Nam repair my bike                

à   I had my bike repaired by Nam

 

 

 B/.     VỚI ĐỘNG TỪ GET:

à  Chủ động:     S + get/got  + O(người) + to V1 + O (vật)         

à Bị động :    S + get/got + O (vật) +V 3/ed + by + O (người )

Eg:  I got my sister to clean the house     

à  I got the house cleaned by my sister.



X– BỊ ĐỘNG To -infinitive

S + V+ to V1   

à  V + to be +V 3/ed +( by O)

         Eg: Nam  wants  Lan  to invite  him to the party

              à Nam wants to be invited to the party by Lan

      

XI – BỊ ĐỘNG GERUND:

V + V-ing  

à  V + being + V3/ed + (by O)

          Eg: She enjoyed receiving a nice present

                   à  She enjoyed  being given  a nice present


XII - VỚI ĐỘNG TỪ MAKE, LET

--> Chủ động:     S          +              MAKE     +       O1    +     V1 +      O2 ….

à Bị Động :    S          +   Be   + Made +           To-Inf +       by       O2 ……

Ex: They made small children do hard work.

       →    Small children were made to do hard work.


ĐỘNG TỪ "LET" 

--> Chủ động:   S            +           LET           +     O1 +      V1+   O2

--> Bị động:     S          +be    +     ALLOWED             to   V   +         by     O2

Ex: My parents let my sister go out with her friends in the evening.

-> My sister is let to go out with her friends in the evening.

  

 

B - PRACTICE: Choose the best answer (hs đọc câu hỏi và tự học)

Câu 1. The photos ................... in a London studio last week.

A. were taken        B. have taken              C. was taken              D. have been taken

Câu 2.   The car ................... by my father yesterday.

A. were washed    B. was washed             C. washed          D. has been washed

Câu 3.  When the boy ................... the car, he was badly injured.

      A. is hit by                  B. was hit by                          C. hit           D. was hitting

Câu 4.   The new motorway ..................... and built last year.

      A. planned                  B. was planned             C. was planning          D. had planned

Câu 5.   Many mistakes ......................... made.

      A. has been just                       B. have just been              C. is just            D. to be just

Câu 6.   His father gave him a very expensive cell phone on his last birthday.

      A. He is given a very expensive cell phone on his last birthday.

      B. He was given a very expensive cell phone on his last birthday.

      C. He had been given a very expensive cell phone on his last birthday.

      D. He has been given a very expensive cell phone on his last birthday.

Câu 7.   What will happen if the air....................... ?

      A. was polluted                B. be polluted              C. is polluted              D. has polluted

Câu 8. They are building a new zoo near my village.

A. A new zoo is being built near my village.         

B. A new zoo will be built near my village. 

C. A new zoo is built near my village.                 

D. A new zoo is being building near my village.

Câu 9.   Most forests in other climatic areas.......................by human beings.

      A. had already been affected                          B. have already been affecting

      C. have already affected                                 D. have already been affected

Câu 10. The passage _____ out loud.

A. has been read B. have been read C. have been readed  D. has read 

Câu 11. The parcel _____ to him before his birthday.

A. will be sent           B. will be sented              C. will be send                      D. will been sent

Câu 12. The first question must ___________ before you attempt the others.

A. have answer          B. answer                        C. to answer                           D. be answered

Câu 13. Is the new computer system going to _____________ next month?

A. being installed by people            B. be installed           C. being installed     D. been installed

Câu 14. My bank loan _____ in five years time.

A. will be payed off             B. will be paid off          C. will be paying off         D. will paid off

Câu 15. _____ to you yet?

A. Have the books been given back       B. Have the book been give back

C. Have the book been gave back            D. Have the book being given back

Câu 16. The Prime Minister is believed ______________ tomorrow.

A. will resign                B. to resign                 C. to be resigning                      D. to have resigned

Câu 17. These mechanics are going to repair our car this afternoon.

A. Our car is going to be repaired by these mechanics this afternoon.

B. Our car is going to repair these mechanics this afternoon.

C. We are going to get these mechanics repair our car this afternoon.

D. We are going to get our car repaired by these mechanics this afternoon

Câu 18. People think that the company is planning a new advertising campaign.

A. The company is thought to be planning a new advertising campaign.

B. The company is thought to have planning a new advertising campaign.

C. The company was thought to plan a new advertising campaign.

D. The company was thought to be planning a new advertising campaign.

Câu 19. Bill ………………….Ann to the party tomorrow.

. A. will be invited                                               B. will invite

C. will have invited                                              D. will have been invited.

Câu 20. A new hospital ………………….in this area.

A. are going to be built     B. builds          C. is going to be built   D. is going to build

Câu 21.” When ----------? “   - In 1928

A. penicillin was discovered         B. did penicillin discovered

C. was penicillin discovered       D. did penicillin discover

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