Reported Speech (Câu Tường Thuật)

REPORTED SPEECH: Câu tường thuật

A. LÝ THUYẾT

I.  Nếu động từ tường thuật ở thì hiện tại thì -à khi đổi sang câu gián tiếp ta không lùi thì.   

      Ex: She says: “I am doing my homework.”

            She says that she is doing her homework

 

 II.  Nếu động từ tường thuật ở thì quá khứ thì khi đổi sang câu gián tiếp ta đổi ngôi, thì và trạng ngữ.   

1. Cách đổi ngôi:

a. Ngôi thứ nhất: đổi theo người nói ( chủ từ đứng trước V tường thuật)

              Trực tiếp                       Gián tiếp

I                            →  he / she                                   

me                                     →  him / her                     

my                         →  his / her

We                         → they                                           

us                          → them                            

our                         →  their

b.  Ngôi thứ hai (you _ you_ your):  theo người nghetân ngữ đứng sau động từ tường thuật (said/ told))

Ex1: My sister said to me: “ You should do you your homework every night”

-> My sister told me that I should do my homework every night.

Ex: He says to her “ I  miss  you very much”

       à He tells her that he misses her very much.

c. Ngôi thứ ba (He / She / Him / Her / His / They / Them / Their): giữ nguyên, không đổi

 

2. Cách đổi thì:

Trực tiếp

Gián tiếp

HTĐ  - V1 /Vs(es)                      à

HTTD – am / is / are + V-ing          à

HTHT – have / has + V3                à 

HTHTTD – have / has been +V-ing

QKĐ – V2 / -ed                             à

QKTD – was / were + V-ing        à

TLĐ – will + V1                             à       

TLTD  will be + V-ing                  à

Must + V1             à

 

- can

- shall

- may

- have to

 

QKĐ – V2 / V-ed

QKTD – was / were + V-ing

QKHT – had + V3

QKHTTD -  had been + V-ing

QKHT – had + V3

QKHTTD – had been +V-ing

TL trong QK - would + V1

TL tiếp diễn trong QK - would be + V-ing

Must/ had to + V1

à could

à should

à might

à had to

 

3. Cách đổi các trạng từ chỉ thời gian và nơi chốn:

Trực tiếp

Gián tiếp

today/ tonight

that day/ that night

yesterday

the day before/ the previous day

last month(last + DTTG)

the month before / the previous month( the  DTTG before)

tomorrow

the following day/ the next day / the day after

the day before yesterday

two days before

the day after tomorrow

in two days’ time

next month

the following month / the next month / the month after

here

there

now

then

ago

before

this

that

these

those

 

BẢNG ĐẠI TỪ

Chủ từ

Túc từ

Tính từ sở hữu

I

You

He

She

It

We

They

me

you

him

her

it

us

them

my

your

his

her

its

our

their

 

 

IV. CÁCH ĐỔI TỪNG LOẠI CÂU CỤ THỂ

1. Câu trần thuật:

          1.1 .  S said : “ S + V……”

         à S said  that  S(đổi) + V(lùi thì) + (adv)-đổi-nếu có

 

1.2 . S+ said to + O : “ S + V……”

à S+ told +O ( that) S(đổi) + V(lùi thì) + (adv)-đổi-nếu có  +

     Ex: ‘I will give you a test tomorrow’, our teacher said to us

        -> Our teacher told us  she would give us a test the next day.

* Notes: Có thể sử dụng một số động từ dẫn sau: thought, announced, explained, complained, believed

             said to →  told

              said to + O                  (She said to me …)

              told / asked + O          (She told me …/ She asked me …)

2. Câu hỏi

 a. Câu hỏi Yes -No

    Câu trực tiếp: S + V + (O) : “do/does/did… + S + V1 + O….?”

 

                                      asked + O

     " Gián tiếp:  S + wanted to know + if/ whether + đổi + Vlùi thì + advđổi 

                                 wondered          

EX : She asked him “ Do you know me?”

        à She asked him if he knew her.

Ex: He asked me: “ Are you happy?”

 à He asked me if I was happy

        

b. Câu hỏi có từ hỏi (Wh-)

Câu trực tiếp:    S + V + (O): “Wh- + Aux. V + S + V1 + O ?”

                            asked  + O

à Câu gián tiếp    S  + wanted to know +  Wh- + đổi + Vlùi thì + advđổi 

                         wondered

EX : I asked her “What are you cooking?”

       à I asked her what he was cooking.         

 

3. Câu mệnh lệnh:

      a. Mệnh lệnh khẳng định:

                  S said to +O  : “ V1+ O…..”

                 à    S + told/ asked / ordered   + O +   to V1 …

                             

                             

  Eg: “Please wait for a minute.” the man said to me

      à The man told me to wait for a minute.

       He said to the waiter, “Please bring me some hot water.”

     à He told me to bring him some hot water.

 

    b. Mệnh lệnh phủ định:

                                            S  +  ordered/ told/ asked  + O + not to V1 …

                             

         Eg:  “ Please don’t talk loudly”.

                        à He asked me  not to talk loudly.

         Eg:  He said “Don’t shut the window, Hoa ”.

           à He asked Hoa not to shut the window

 

 

4. Câu tường thuật với To-infinitive:

       a. Không có tân ngữ:                  S +  V +    to + V1 + …

             (agree, demand, hope, promise, offer, refuse, decide...)

Ex :  They said: “ We’ll come back again” 

    à They promised to come back again.                                                                     

      b. Có tân ngữ :  S +      V + O + to + V1 + …

    (ask, advise( khuyên) , invite( mời) , order, recommend( giới thiệu, đề nghị), encourage( khuyến khích) , urge( thúc giục), want( muốn) ., beg, instruct, persuade( thuyết phục…)

 Vd: Advise sb To V0, Ask sb To V0  ….

Ex: He said to me “You’d better get up early

à He advised me to get up early.

    

Note:

Would you / Could you / Will you/ Can you -> asked

                 Would you mind + V-ing /Do you mind + V-ing -> asked

                             Would you like / Will you ….-> invited

You should / You ought to V1...........

                  If I were you ,

                  You had better + V1…                             -> advised  

                  Why don’t you + V1….

 

Remember…                 

                               -> reminded  

Don’t for get

He said to me:  “Would you like to go out for a drink?”

à He invited me to go out for a drink.

“I will look after the house for you if you like” he said.

à He offered to look after the house for me if I liked.

 

 

5. Câu tường thuật với V-ing:

   a. Không có giới từ:        S +   V +  V-ing …

                 deny (chối  cãi), suggest (đề nghị ), admit (thừa nhận , thú nhận), regret (nuối tiếc)

Ex: He said to me: “Let’s go home”

        à He suggested going home.

      

       b. Có giới từ:           S +  V +  giới từ  + V-ing …

 

-  apologize  for  s.th           ( xin lỗi)

- congratulate  on          ( chúc mừng)

- insist on                                  ( khăng khăng

- dream of                               (mơ về …)

- object to                               (chống đối về ….)

c. S + V +( giới từ  )     O + giới từ  + Ving

          - apologize to sb for  (xin lỗi ai vì điều gì)

          -  thank sb for        (cảm ơn ai vì điều gì)

          - blame sb for            (đổ lỗi cho ai vì điều gì)

          - congratulate sb on             (chúc mừng ai đó việc gì)

    - prevent/ stop sb from               ( ngăn cản ai không  được làm gì)

E. g1: “It was nice of you to help me. Thank you very much,” Tom said to me.

à Tom thanked me for helping him.

E.g1: “I’m sorry I’m late,” Peter said.

à  

Note: warn sb against  + V-ing     /  warn sb not to + V1        (cảnh báo ai đừng làm gì)

               How about + V-ing… / Why don’t we + V1 -> suggested                                                                                   

Let’s / Let’s not -> suggested

Shall we/ It’s a good idea -> suggested

Why don’t you/ we-> suggested

How about+ Ving/ what about + V-ing-> suggested

I’m sorry -> apologized

                  Thank you / Thanks -> thanked

                  Congratulations -> congratulated

John said to me:  “I heard you received the scholarship. Congratulations!”

-> John congratulated me on receiving the scholarship.

 

6. Câu điều kiện trong lời nói gián tiếp:

- Đk loại 1: đổi thì, đổi ngôi

- Đk loại 2, 3: đổi ngôi

She said: “If I have enough money, I will buy a new computer.”

 -> She said that  if she had enough money, she would buy a new computer.

The boy said: “If I had come to the party, I would have had a good time.”

-> The boy said that if he had come to the party, he would have had a good time.

 

B. BÀI TẬP( EXERCISES)

EXERCISE 6: Choose the best answer

Câu 1. Jack asked me _____.

  A. where do you come from?                            B. where you came from  

  C. where I came from                                       D. where did I come from?

Câu 2. She asked me _____ I liked pop music.

  A. when                        B. what                           C. if                                      D. x

Câu 3. The doctor ____ him to take more exercise.

  A. told                           B. tell                              C. have told                       D. are telling

Câu 4. I wanted to know_____ return home.

  A. when would she     B. when will she           C. when she will                D. when she would

Câu 5. Claire told me that her father____ a race horse.

  A. owns                         B. owned                      C. owning                          D. A and B

Câu 6. What did that man say ______?

  A. at you                       B. for you                       C. to you                            D. you

Câu 7. I rang my friend in Australia yesterday, and she said it _______ raining there.

  A. is                               B. were                           C. has been                       D. was

Câu 8. The builders have ______ that everything will be ready on time.

  A. promised                B. promise                     C. promises                        D. promising

Câu 9. The last time I saw Linda, she looked very relaxed. She explained she’d been on holiday the ______ week.

  A. ago                            B. following                   C. next                                D. previous

Câu 10.    Yesterday, Laura ______ him to put some shelves up.

  A. asked                                    B. is asking                           C. ask              D. was asked

Câu 11.    Tom has ______ this story wasn’t completely true.

  A. admitting that                       B. was admitted that           C. admitted that      D. admit that

Câu 12.    When I rang Tessa some time last week, she said she was busy ______ day.

  A. that                            B. the                         C. then                   D. this

Câu 13.    I wonder _____ the tickets are on sale yet.

  A. what                                       B. when         C. where                                D. whether

Câu 14.    Mathew _____ Emma that her train was about to leave.

  A. has reminded                 B. has reminded that               C. reminded       D. reminded that

Câu 15.    Hello, Jim. I didn’t expect to see you today. Sophie said you _____ ill.

  A. are                             B. were                      C. was                         D. should be

Câu 16.    Ann ______ and left.

  A. said goodbye to me                     B. says goodbye to me       C. tell me goodbye   D. told me goodbye

Câu 17.    I told you ______ to switch off the computer, didn’t I ?

      A. don’t                                  B. not                         C. not to                                 D. to not

Câu 18.    Bill was slow, so I  ________ hurry up.

      A. tell him      B. told him for                                   C. told to        D. told him to

Câu Sarah was driving to fast, so I  ______ to slow down.

      A. asked her B. asked        C. ask             D. have asked her

Câu 20.    Someone ______ me there had been an accident on the motorway.

      A. asked        B. said            C. spoke        D. told

Câu 21.    Sue was very pessimistic about the situation. I advised her _____.

  A. no worry        B. not worry   C. no to worry           D. not to worry

Câu 22.    I couldn’t move the piano alone, so I asked Tom_______.

  A. giving a hand                       B. gave a hand               C. to give a hand    D. give a hand

Câu 23.    Tom said that New York _______ more lively than London.

  A. is                                B. be                          C. was                                   D. were

Câu 24.    When he was at Oliver’s plat yesterday, Martin asked if he ______ use the phone.

  A. can                            B. could        C. may                                    D. must

Câu 25.    George couldn’t help me. He ______ me to ask Kate.

      A. tell                         B. said                                    C. told                        D. say

Câu 26.    Judy ______ going for a walk, but no one else wanted to.

      A. admitted    B. offered      C. promised        D. suggested

Câu 27.    I said that I had met her ______ .

  A. yesterday      B. the previous day           C. the day      D. the before day.

Câu 28.    The man asked the boys ______ .

  A. why did they fight                B. why they were fighting           

  C. why they fight                      D. why were they  fighting

Câu 29.    “______the door”, he said.

  A. please open            B. open pleased       C. please to open     D. please, opening

Câu 30.    The woman wonders _______ doing well at school.

  A. whether her children are B. if her children were

  C. whether her children were             D. her children are if

Câu 31.    Peter said he was leaving for Paris ______.

  A. next week                                           B. the week previous          

C. following week                                      D. the following week

Câu 32.    “I don’t usually drink milk when ______ ” Mrs. Pike said.

  A. she was hungry                  B. I was hungry        C. I am hungry        D. I will be

Câu 33.    They said that their house had been broken into ______.

  A. the two days before         B. two days ago        C. two days before   D. since two days

Câu 34.    She advised me _______ an apple everyday to stay healthy.

      A. eating        B. I should eat          C. to eat        D. please, eat

 

 


Sửa lần cuối: Thứ bảy, 9 Tháng chín 2017, 12:00 PM