Reported Speech (Câu Tường Thuật)
REPORTED SPEECH: Câu tường thuật
A. LÝ THUYẾT
I. Nếu động từ tường thuật ở thì hiện tại thì -à khi đổi sang câu gián tiếp ta không lùi thì.
Ex: She says: “I am doing my homework.”
She says that she is doing her homework
II. Nếu động từ tường thuật ở thì quá khứ thì khi đổi sang câu gián tiếp ta đổi ngôi, thì và trạng ngữ.
1. Cách đổi ngôi:
a. Ngôi thứ nhất: đổi theo người nói ( chủ từ đứng trước V tường thuật)
Trực tiếp Gián tiếp
I → he / she
me → him / her
my → his / her
We → they
us → them
our → their
b. Ngôi thứ hai (you _ you_ your): theo người nghe ( tân ngữ đứng sau động từ tường thuật (said/ told))
Ex1: My sister said to me: “ You should do you your homework every night”
-> My sister told me that I should do my homework every night.
Ex: He says to her “ I miss you very much”
à He tells her that he misses her very much.
c. Ngôi thứ ba (He / She / Him / Her / His / They / Them / Their): giữ nguyên, không đổi
2. Cách đổi thì:
HTĐ - V1 /Vs(es) à
HTTD – am / is / are + V-ing à
HTHT – have / has + V3 à
HTHTTD – have / has been +V-ing
QKĐ – V2 / -ed à
QKTD – was / were + V-ing à
TLĐ – will + V1 à
TLTD will be + V-ing à
Must + V1 à
- have to
QKĐ – V2 / V-ed
QKTD – was / were + V-ing
QKHT – had + V3
QKHTTD - had been + V-ing
QKHT – had + V3
QKHTTD – had been +V-ing
TL trong QK - would + V1
TL tiếp diễn trong QK - would be + V-ing
Must/ had to + V1
à had to
3. Cách đổi các trạng từ chỉ thời gian và nơi chốn:
that day/ that night
the day before/ the previous day
last month(last + DTTG)
the month before / the previous month( the DTTG before)
the following day/ the next day / the day after
the day before yesterday
two days before
the day after tomorrow
in two days’ time
the following month / the next month / the month after
BẢNG ĐẠI TỪ
Tính từ sở hữu
IV. CÁCH ĐỔI TỪNG LOẠI CÂU CỤ THỂ
1. Câu trần thuật:
1.1 . S said : “ S + V……”
à S said that S(đổi) + V(lùi thì) + (adv)-đổi-nếu có
1.2 . S+ said to + O : “ S + V……”
à S+ told +O ( that) S(đổi) + V(lùi thì) + (adv)-đổi-nếu có +
Ex: ‘I will give you a test tomorrow’, our teacher said to us
-> Our teacher told us she would give us a test the next day.
* Notes: Có thể sử dụng một số động từ dẫn sau: thought, announced, explained, complained, believed…
said to → told
said to + O (She said to me …)
told / asked + O (She told me …/ She asked me …)
2. Câu hỏi
a. Câu hỏi Yes -No
Câu trực tiếp: S + V + (O) : “do/does/did… + S + V1 + O….?”
asked + O
" Gián tiếp: S + wanted to know + if/ whether + Sđổi + Vlùi thì + advđổi
EX : She asked him “ Do you know me?”
à She asked him if he knew her.
Ex: He asked me: “ Are you happy?”
à He asked me if I was happy
b. Câu hỏi có từ hỏi (Wh-)
Câu trực tiếp: S + V + (O): “Wh- + Aux. V + S + V1 + O ?”
asked + O
à Câu gián tiếp S + wanted to know + Wh- + Sđổi + Vlùi thì + advđổi
EX : I asked her “What are you cooking?”
à I asked her what he was cooking.
3. Câu mệnh lệnh:
a. Mệnh lệnh khẳng định:
S said to +O : “ V1+ O…..”
à S + told/ asked / ordered + O + to V1 …
Eg: “Please wait for a minute.” the man said to me
à The man told me to wait for a minute.
He said to the waiter, “Please bring me some hot water.”
à He told me to bring him some hot water.
b. Mệnh lệnh phủ định:
S + ordered/ told/ asked + O + not to V1 …
Eg: “ Please don’t talk loudly”.
à He asked me not to talk loudly.
Eg: He said “Don’t shut the window, Hoa ”.
à He asked Hoa not to shut the window
4. Câu tường thuật với To-infinitive:
a. Không có tân ngữ: S + V + to + V1 + …
(agree, demand, hope, promise, offer, refuse, decide...)
Ex : They said: “ We’ll come back again”
à They promised to come back again.
b. Có tân ngữ : S + V + O + to + V1 + …
(ask, advise( khuyên) , invite( mời) , order, recommend( giới thiệu, đề nghị), encourage( khuyến khích) , urge( thúc giục), want( muốn) ., beg, instruct, persuade( thuyết phục…)
Vd: Advise sb To V0, Ask sb To V0 ….
Ex: He said to me “You’d better get up early”
à He advised me to get up early.
Would you / Could you / Will you/ Can you -> asked
Would you mind + V-ing /Do you mind + V-ing -> asked
Would you like / Will you ….-> invited
You should / You ought to V1...........
If I were you ,
You had better + V1… -> advised
Why don’t you + V1….
Don’t for get
He said to me: “Would you like to go out for a drink?”
à He invited me to go out for a drink.
“I will look after the house for you if you like” he said.
à He offered to look after the house for me if I liked.
5. Câu tường thuật với V-ing:
a. Không có giới từ: S + V + V-ing …
deny (chối cãi), suggest (đề nghị ), admit (thừa nhận , thú nhận), regret (nuối tiếc)
Ex: He said to me: “Let’s go home”
à He suggested going home.
b. Có giới từ: S + V + giới từ + V-ing …
- apologize for s.th ( xin lỗi)
- congratulate on ( chúc mừng)
- insist on ( khăng khăng
- dream of (mơ về …)
- object to (chống đối về ….)
c. S + V +( giới từ ) O + giới từ + Ving
- apologize to sb for (xin lỗi ai vì điều gì)
- thank sb for (cảm ơn ai vì điều gì)
- blame sb for (đổ lỗi cho ai vì điều gì)
- congratulate sb on (chúc mừng ai đó việc gì)
- prevent/ stop sb from ( ngăn cản ai không được làm gì)
E. g1: “It was nice of you to help me. Thank you very much,” Tom said to me.
à Tom thanked me for helping him.
E.g1: “I’m sorry I’m late,” Peter said.
Note: warn sb against + V-ing / warn sb not to + V1 (cảnh báo ai đừng làm gì)
How about + V-ing… / Why don’t we + V1 -> suggested
Let’s / Let’s not -> suggested
Shall we/ It’s a good idea -> suggested
Why don’t you/ we-> suggested
How about+ Ving/ what about + V-ing-> suggested
I’m sorry -> apologized
Thank you / Thanks -> thanked
Congratulations -> congratulated
John said to me: “I heard you received the scholarship. Congratulations!”
-> John congratulated me on receiving the scholarship.
6. Câu điều kiện trong lời nói gián tiếp:
- Đk loại 1: đổi thì, đổi ngôi
- Đk loại 2, 3: đổi ngôi
She said: “If I have enough money, I will buy a new computer.”
-> She said that if she had enough money, she would buy a new computer.
The boy said: “If I had come to the party, I would have had a good time.”
-> The boy said that if he had come to the party, he would have had a good time.
B. BÀI TẬP( EXERCISES)
EXERCISE 6: Choose the best answer
Câu 1. Jack asked me _____.
A. where do you come from? B. where you came from
C. where I came from D. where did I come from?
Câu 2. She asked me _____ I liked pop music.
A. when B. what C. if D. x
Câu 3. The doctor ____ him to take more exercise.
A. told B. tell C. have told D. are telling
Câu 4. I wanted to know_____ return home.
A. when would she B. when will she C. when she will D. when she would
Câu 5. Claire told me that her father____ a race horse.
A. owns B. owned C. owning D. A and B
Câu 6. What did that man say ______?
A. at you B. for you C. to you D. you
Câu 7. I rang my friend in Australia yesterday, and she said it _______ raining there.
A. is B. were C. has been D. was
Câu 8. The builders have ______ that everything will be ready on time.
A. promised B. promise C. promises D. promising
Câu 9. The last time I saw Linda, she looked very relaxed. She explained she’d been on holiday the ______ week.
A. ago B. following C. next D. previous
Câu 10. Yesterday, Laura ______ him to put some shelves up.
A. asked B. is asking C. ask D. was asked
Câu 11. Tom has ______ this story wasn’t completely true.
A. admitting that B. was admitted that C. admitted that D. admit that
Câu 12. When I rang Tessa some time last week, she said she was busy ______ day.
A. that B. the C. then D. this
Câu 13. I wonder _____ the tickets are on sale yet.
A. what B. when C. where D. whether
Câu 14. Mathew _____ Emma that her train was about to leave.
A. has reminded B. has reminded that C. reminded D. reminded that
Câu 15. Hello, Jim. I didn’t expect to see you today. Sophie said you _____ ill.
A. are B. were C. was D. should be
Câu 16. Ann ______ and left.
A. said goodbye to me B. says goodbye to me C. tell me goodbye D. told me goodbye
Câu 17. I told you ______ to switch off the computer, didn’t I ?
A. don’t B. not C. not to D. to not
Câu 18. Bill was slow, so I ________ hurry up.
A. tell him B. told him for C. told to D. told him to
Câu Sarah was driving to fast, so I ______ to slow down.
A. asked her B. asked C. ask D. have asked her
Câu 20. Someone ______ me there had been an accident on the motorway.
A. asked B. said C. spoke D. told
Câu 21. Sue was very pessimistic about the situation. I advised her _____.
A. no worry B. not worry C. no to worry D. not to worry
Câu 22. I couldn’t move the piano alone, so I asked Tom_______.
A. giving a hand B. gave a hand C. to give a hand D. give a hand
Câu 23. Tom said that New York _______ more lively than London.
A. is B. be C. was D. were
Câu 24. When he was at Oliver’s plat yesterday, Martin asked if he ______ use the phone.
A. can B. could C. may D. must
Câu 25. George couldn’t help me. He ______ me to ask Kate.
A. tell B. said C. told D. say
Câu 26. Judy ______ going for a walk, but no one else wanted to.
A. admitted B. offered C. promised D. suggested
Câu 27. I said that I had met her ______ .
A. yesterday B. the previous day C. the day D. the before day.
Câu 28. The man asked the boys ______ .
A. why did they fight B. why they were fighting
C. why they fight D. why were they fighting
Câu 29. “______the door”, he said.
A. please open B. open pleased C. please to open D. please, opening
Câu 30. The woman wonders _______ doing well at school.
A. whether her children are B. if her children were
C. whether her children were D. her children are if
Câu 31. Peter said he was leaving for Paris ______.
A. next week B. the week previous
C. following week D. the following week
Câu 32. “I don’t usually drink milk when ______ ” Mrs. Pike said.
A. she was hungry B. I was hungry C. I am hungry D. I will be
Câu 33. They said that their house had been broken into ______.
A. the two days before B. two days ago C. two days before D. since two days
Câu 34. She advised me _______ an apple everyday to stay healthy.
A. eating B. I should eat C. to eat D. please, eat